February 5, 2019

“What if Eve was an Indian

& Adam was never kneaded

from the earth, Eve was earth

& ribs were her idea all along?”-When my Brother Was an Aztec by Natalie Diaz


All three themes explored in “When my brother was an Aztec”– environment, brother and body– are undeniably connected to poet’s life on Mojave reservation as a native American. How would you describe this connection with the land? How has this connection influenced the poet’s life? Note that, this is not necessarily a positive or negative impact. Support your argument with evidence from the poems along with your own interpretation. For this reason, you can look at the book as a whole, or you can pick one or two poems. (Minimum 200-400 words).

This assignment is due Monday 5m. Post it as a comment on this blog post. Bring the printed copy on Tuesday.

Starting Monday 5pm, you have until midnight to comment on one your classmate’s responses. (Minimum 75 words).



  1. The three themes within “When My Brother Was an Aztec” by Natalie Diaz include environment, brother and body. The first poem of the book, “When My Brother Was an Aztec”, describes the negative impact her brother has on the poet and her parents. On the reservation, her brother is a leader to “dirty-breasted women” which negatively affects her home life. Her parents are at the feet of her brother and she watches as it drains them. She describes her brother with undesirable traits such as having a strong body odor and being selfish. As seen in the next poem, “Abecedarian Requiring Further Examination of Anglikan Seraphym Subjugation of a Wild Indian Rezervation”, the poet views the reservation as a deadly place. The only wings in sight were of Gabe’s, who had wings of a jailbird and Pastor John’s son who was described as white, the color of an angel. The sight of an angel on the Mojave reservation isn’t necessarily promising. It is associated with people the poet describes as “rich and fat and ugly” who would relocate the Native Americans living there. She seems to have a negative outlook on life whilst living on the reservation. Therefore, it is evident that the connection with the land and the poet’s life greatly impacts her. The environment is filled with death, her body isn’t of a white angel and her brother was an Aztec.

  2. When my Brother Was an Aztec by Natalie Diaz is an exposed and honest telling of life on a Mojave Indian Reservation in California. A reservation that seems as if it should be closely connected to the Earth and nature, but is instead haunted by poor education, poverty, and substance abuse. In regards to wildlife visiting the reservation, Diaz states in the poem, “Abecedarian Requiring Further Examination of Anglikan Seraphym Subjugation of a Wild Indian Rezervation” that “they all mean the same thing – death.” She’s comparing the wildlife to Angels, celestial beings who often represent death. Diaz also states that she’s only heard of these Angels from the Christmas plays that take place at the nearby Nazarene church. The small community that lives upon the reservation’s land is also largely, and for the most part negatively, influenced by the society that lives just outside it. Diaz writes about life outside of the reservation, and how living among White people was met with discrimination even as a young child. In the poem, “Hand-Me-Down Halloween” Diaz describes her first Halloween in an urban environment. She dressed as an Indian in used clothes from a boy up the street and was bullied by the other children in her neighborhood. She started a fight with the boy, which ended with her mother telling her that next year she should dress as Tinker Bell. This seems as if it was her mother’s way of telling her to conform, and be a bit more like the White children in her new environment.

    1. In reading this response, it helped me to have a better understanding of some of the connections and comparisons used in the poets’ analogies. The detail of comparing wildlife to Angels, celestial beings who often represent death, was something I did not think about when reading the poem. This post has given me an additional outlook and interpretation of some of the poems. When she references “Hand-Me-Down Halloween” poem, I definitely agree this poem emphasizes the cultural differences but I did not think about it the way Tonya has described in her response. It was really interesting to read her take on it. It was another perspective for me to think about.

    2. I agree with Tonya that the way the author often compares her living situation in the poems, helps to give the reader a better understanding of her life. I mentioned the poem in which she compares angels to wildlife and death to celestials in my response as well. It gives the reader an insight of what life is like living on the reservation. Something that I really liked that Tonya mentioned was that instead of thinking of nature when we hear the word reservation, the poet connects her home to poverty and crime.

    3. Hi Tonya,
      I enjoyed reading your interpretation of the prompt. The poem ““Abecedarian Requiring Further Examination of Anglikan Seraphym Subjugation of a Wild Indian Rezervation” also stood out to me with the way Diaz talks about her home stating even angels do not go there. I like the way you incorporated the sociological influences on the reservation and on Diaz’s life as a kid. The small community outside the reservation had a big impact on Diaz as a child, feeling low self-worth and ill feelings towards her home.

  3. “When my brother was an Aztec”
    The environment that I felt was being described in this poem was when the author mentioned “basement” in the first line. The basement are known to be dark, closed space, lots of dust, majority of where old antiques, and filled with boxes junk would be located. The basement is where her brother was living in. Her brother would have women coming in and out of his basement every morning from staying overnight. This theme of the environment connects to the land through escaping reality. Land is usually filled with trees, animals, rivers and living in that environment can turn into savagery, which is similar towards how her brother is living.
    In stanza 2 the author mentions, “it started with him stumbling along la Avenida de los Muertos” which signifies avenue of dead people. The theme body is being portrayed through the usage of bodies of dead people being compared to her brother. The land is filled with bodies of dead people following along each other on an avenue, just like the women following along the brother. In my opinion, I feel like the poet is living a life of misery because of her brother. She feels as if she’s watching her brother suffer and slowly watching him die.
    In stanza 7 the theme environment is being demonstrated as her brother is living in filth, unsanitary lifestyle. The author states “while flea-ridden dogs ran up and down the steps, licking their asses” connects to how the brother carries himself and how it shows his family an unrealistic way of life.

    1. Samanthaperez,
      Your response was valid and well written. I appreciated the fact that you were able to apply all three themes to this one poem about the brother and clearly support the connection of each theme to the land. When you mentioned the theme of the body and the link that you made pointing out the dead bodies to the women’s bodies was something I would have missed if I had not read your response. It show that you really looked into detail with the themes, nicely analyzed the text (which is not easy in poetry), and found solid connections to the land.

    2. Samanthaperez

      I found it very interesting the connection that you found with the “flea-ridden dogs…” and how the brother carries himself. I did not consider this connection before regarding the unsanitary manner of the basement he resides in. I also feel as though the connection between the avenue of the dead and the sister following along her “dead” brother is interesting, considering the detriment in which he is having upon his parents. The connection between the parents following like effigies in a procession was heavily reminiscent of a funeral procession. Your connections to the themes are interesting and helped to shed light upon an outlook which I did not consider.

  4. In “When my brother was an Aztec” environment, brother and body have a deep connection to the poets’ life on the Mojave reservation. The poet’s life was affected by her brother’s addiction to drugs. She dealt with cultural differences in her environment. The poet uses the body as an important descriptive tool throughout the book. Her writings are mostly that of drugs, violence, and stereotyping in the community. I believe there has been a positive impact on the poets’ life because of her life on the Mojave reservation, however I feel that her personal experiences have also lead to a sad connection to the Mojave.
    Diaz opens up the book with “When my brother was an Aztec” and describes his addiction, the repeated abuse, pain and suffering her parents endured due to his addiction. Regardless, her parents always allowed him to come back home. Overall I gather that Diaz had a lot of anger, hate and resentment towards her brother. In the poem “No more cake here” she seems to celebrate her brother’s death.
    “When my brother died

    I worried there wasn’t enough time

    to deliver the one hundred invitations 

    I’d scribbled while on the phone with the mortuary:

    Because of the short notice no need to RSVP” (Diaz, 2012, p. 68)
    In my opinion she was fantasizing about her brother’s death but reality then strikes revealing that he in fact was alive. I think she preferred he were dead, it would be a relief to her. This to me is proof of a connection to the Mojave of family struggle & sadness.
    She also addresses stereotyping and bigotry. She describes being made fun of because of her outfit. In the poem “Hand-me-down-Halloween” she describes being called “in-din” & “half-breed”. She describes a white mother and a kid, emphasizing the color of skin.
    The body being a descriptive tool throughout the book is used to describe her brother graphically as an addict. It is used in “A woman with no legs” to describe her sick grandmother as “Feels she’s lost part of her memory the part the legs knew best like earth” The body is also used in descriptive intimate thoughts.
    I think the love poems have a happy connection to the Mojave reservation, but overall the struggles outweigh the love. Nothing in life is ever perfect; many of us overcome and survive because we have been able to learn and grow from our struggles and past connections. Although I feel the poet may have overcome and succeeded due to her life in the Mojave reservation, I feel the connection is that mostly of struggle and unhappy memories.

  5. There are significant themes that appear in Natalie Diaz’s “When My Brother Was an Aztec” which clearly and deeply show connection to her home land. It is apparent that growing up in Mojave reservation as a Native American had great effect on Diaz’s personal life including her environment, family, and her body which shows in her creative writing. Many of her poems tend to set a setting and scenery even if it is telling of her brother’s sickness with drugs or how her family copes with the struggles of the brother or her own personal experiences of cultural expression. Diaz describes the many forms of racisms she has encountered, this especially shows in the poem “Hand-Me-Down Halloween”. This poem expresses Diaz’s experience with her neighbors, who are white, and how she is teased her for being a Native American after giving her a Halloween costume that clearly disrespects the culture of her ancestors and then after, angering her to the point where she physically attacks the young neighbor boy. Though this supposed story took place off the reservation it still tells how she carries her home land with her wherever she may go. Diaz’s culture, experiences growing up, and persona show the reality of the land she lived on. There is often mention of evil or darkness through the stories of her brother. In “How to Go to Dinner with a Brother on Drugs”, what it seems as common behavior from the brother, subtly connects to the dark past of the Mojave Reservation. The writer goes to say “this beautiful drug usually dresses him up like a greed god”, because the brother dresses as Judas to go out to dinner. As a reader, it is proposed that the brother must have felt, heard of, or personally experienced some sort of spiritual occurrence or understanding that leads him to express a form of it through the effects of his drug consuming. This piece of evidence can connect the brother’s behavior to the traumatic history of the Mojave Reservation that consisted of many deaths and betrayal of people. All and all the history of the land is without a doubt expressed in Diaz’s writing through the three important themes that seem to reflect in her poetry which inevitably show the influence it has made in the life.

    1. I really like how you started off your introduction, it made it sound clear about what you were going to be talking about. I liked how you connected her way of life as a native American to the environment, body and brother. I found it surprising and also interesting that her brother had a drug problem. I now have a more of a clarification that he was doing drugs and the poem makes more sense. Lastly I agree with you on how you described the ways the family had to cope with his drug addiction.

    2. Hi Daniela. Your response incorporated a theme I wanted to mention but wasn’t quite sure how to convey. You said “though this supposed story took place off the reservation it still tells how she carries her home land with her wherever she may go” which reminded me of something I thought of a lot while I was reading. For Diaz’s family, life was neither easier or harder on or off the reservation, and she carried weight of her family’s burdens with her wherever she went.

    3. I agree with your statement about the author been connected with her homeland. There is a strong sense of cultural influence on her poems. I really like the way which you analyzed the poems specially on “Hand-Me-Down Halloween” . It says a lot about how she manage to move forward in a society in which labels and the color of the skin mattered.

  6. The three themes of body, environment, and brother which are present throughout When My Brother Was an Aztec by Natalie Diaz are utilized cooperatively to contextualize the highly influential affect in which they have upon the author. The poem “When My Brother Was an Aztec” speaks of the detrimental affect of Crystal Meth upon the brother’s body, while simultaneously destroying the bodies of his parents. As the poem progressed, the toll in which the brother’s drug use has upon them left their bodies decimated through the continual unreciprocated love and emotion at the behest of the drug induced personality of the brother. This is evident through the lines “Neighbors were amazed my parents’ hearts kept growing back— It said a lot about my parents, or parents’ hearts.” The love in which they share for their son while he acts as a burden upon their hearts, wilts their hearts yet the love they feel for their son through his troublesome time cannot just leave them heartless. Though his negative impact was apparent, as he “sacrificed my parents every morning.”, their love was undying no matter if it would bring them to their death. This sacrificial manner the parents are subject to is reminiscent of the Aztec culture, in which sacrifice was prolific. Their bodies are ultimately left in pieces as seen in the lines: “My parents gathered what he’d left of their bodies, trying to stand without legs, trying to defend his blows with missing arms, searching for their fingers to pray” all this due to what “dark belly” they had been fed to at the hands of her brother. The theme of environment is present throughout this poem, but as the environment shapes the characters, it’s also is shaped by the characters through their actions. An environment which is present that is shaped by the characters while having the affect of shaping the character is that of the zoo-like manner of the house. This setting was a creation at the hand of the brother’s possession of “all the jewels a king could eat or smoke or shoot.” At this same time this environment which is heavily conceived by her brother is also having a large influence upon the author, as she watches the physical and emotional destruction of her parents. These 3 themes which are present work synonymously, influencing the authors psyche and producing her viewpoint upon life and family.

  7. In “When my brother was an Aztec” by Natalie Diaz, the three themes that reoccur throughout the book are environment, brother and body. With her unique writing style, Diaz paints a picture of her dark reality mixed with mythological symbolism. Each poem in the books has its own way of telling her story, life living on a reservation and dealing with a brother suffering from drug addiction. I feel that the connection Diaz makes with the land is primarily negative but also a little positive. For example in the poem, “If eve side-stealer & Mary busted-chest ruled the world” Diaz uses symbolism to compare the story of Adam and Eve to the earth. Writing, “What if Eve was an Indian & Adam was never kneaded from the earth, Eve was earth & ribs were her idea all along? Depicts Eve as a strong and independent force who created a physical form. Reading that line, I feel empowerment, independence, strength and growth. However In the last stanza of the poem, Diaz transitions the tone by saying “What if the world was an Indian whose head & back were flat from being strapped to a cradle board as a baby & when she slept she had nightmares lit up by yellow-haired men & ships scraping anchors in her throat? What if she wailed all night while great waves rose up carrying the fleets across her flat back, over the edge of the flat world?” In this stanza, Diaz creates an image of natural disaster, pain, intrusion, using the environment as a way of describing the pain and destruction the Indian people went through when the yellow-haired men took over their land. Diaz compares people to the earth in various poems throughout the book and primarily talks negatively about her home. This can be seen in the poem “Abecedarian Requiring Further Examination of Anglikan Seraphym Subjugation of a Wild Indian Rezervation” in the first line saying, “Angels don’t come to the reservation Bats, maybe, or owls, boxy mottled things. Coyotes, too. They all mean the same thing death. And death”.

    1. I agree with this post in that it is clear to understand. The writer uses efficient analyzation to support her quotes. She dives deep into the situation and uses her own way of explaining. She ties it back down to the roots of the poem with examples and quotes that seem intriguing to the reader. Her response showcased emotions which readers can relate to. I liked the fact that it’s explained throughly for readers to understand.

  8. In “When my brother was an Aztec” by Natalie Diaz . I felt a strong influence by the brother in each verse specially in “The Reservation” where in my point of view she calls him an angel. Angels are not well seen in this poem especially when the stereotypical thought of them been white appears. White man where never a good sign for Native Americans, the environment is usually tense and dark portraying them as nasty and selfish figures.
    When the author mentions a “basement”, I though of it as been a cage where her brother will imprison all his sins and problems. It was like his own little heaven where he can do whatever he wanted without any remorse. Her parents took the worst of his actions but he was often forgiven . The environment in this scene is not healthy it has parents been abused, a house with no rules , a freak with a thirst of power that has put him self in a throne as the complete and total ruler. It seems like he thinks that he is alright but his family sees a broken human being.
    I can see that the author took the worst from a moment and made it a life lesson, the words in her series of poems have strong feelings. I sympathize with her.

    1. Ramon Naula,
      I agree with your statement about feeling a negative influence of the brother being compared to an angel in that specific section of the poem. A good example is “Angels don’t come to the reservation, bats, maybe, or owls, boxy mottled things. Coyotes, too. They all mean the same thing death.” Also in the part where it says he had wings like a jailbird, “he flies around in stolen cars.” Basically the poet is saying angels are never good to the aztec type and are only seen as negative white individuals. “Everyone knows angels are white”, “quit bothering about angels. Everyone knows angels are white.” “They’re no good for indians” I think his family see him as a bad angel and his basement room is his heaven is where all his negativity stays and all the things his family hate about him.

  9. In Natalie Diaz’s “When My Brother Was an Aztec”, the Mojave reservation she grows up on is the foundation that most of her writing is built on. You can see how the reservation exposed her to extream povertry and people pushed to live on edge existence. ” I hate raisins because now I know my mom was hungry that day, too, and I ate all the raisins” The Mojave reservation is desert and historically reservations were designed to be on land consisted of no value. That sense of no value was can see how it affected the population from her bother with a drug addition to the tale of ” The Last Mojave Indian Barbie” who after being exploited and coerced by the white Barbie and Ken was expelled without a second thought.

    The reservation also informs the history and language she uses in her writing. The Mojave reservation is a crossroads of culture and history. The primary is native, but with that area once belonging to Mexico, we see the use of Aztec and native central American history. “He thought he was Huitzilopochtli, a god, half-man half-hummingbird.” The use of also Spanish language also singles ties not to just American oppression but that of the Spanish empire. The reservation represent layers of cultures and history from the oppressed to the oppressors. But unlike other places where you live on history. The reservation will make live within its history.

  10. The three themes that were explored in ”When my brother was Aztec” by Natalie Diaz are environment, brother and body. All of these themes were clearly shown throughout the whole book. Every single poem had something to say about these themes. With the poet and her family being part of the Mojave reservation, she tells what life for them was like and she describes the environment they lived in and were surrounded by in different times of their lives. In the first poem ”When my brother was an Aztec” , by the way she introduces her brother to the reader shows that he was trouble for her and her parents. She was clearly not happy with the lifestyle he had chosen and the reason for that was because the ones that suffered the most were the parents, always trying to look out for him, which in her eyes was a lost cause. Living her whole life on the Mojave reservation as a native American made it very difficult for her when she moved out to a total different place that would bring out different experiences that she had never thought of. For example her experience with racism as she tells us in the poem ”Hand-Me-Down Halloween”. She was being abused by her white neighbor and other kids as they were making fun of her costume on halloween day, causing her to react in a violent way towards her neighbor. However after all the commotion her mother was there standing up for her, this showed that everything about this new place was different, even the people of course. All of these experiences were going to leave scars in her soul, and through out these poems is how she expresses her feelings.

  11. In the book “When My Brother Was an Aztec” by Natalie Diaz the author explores many different themes throughout her poetry . The author writes about her life in the Mojave Reservation as she in growing up. Her poems touch subjects that are relevant to many. She explores the topic of both abuse and family in her first poem . How her brother has hurt their family many times but they can never turn away from him because in some cases that how family is. She explores the topic of poverty on the reservation as depicted the short poem “ Why I Hate Raisins” . In the poem Diaz takes us back to day in her childhood in which she went with her mother to pick up food from a government establishment . Her mother gives her a box of raisins after saying she’s hungry. As she eats her raisins she wishes to be like the white kids who eat sandwich, this seems to hurt her mother’s feeling as she says”Well too bad cause you’re my kid” . The tile of the poem isn’t because she hates raisins or dislikes them but because she later she learn that her mother didn’t eat anything that day that she had finished all the raisins .

    1. I agree with you Carla, i think that she portrays all of the themes in the poems in a symbolic way. I think because it was the first poem, it gave us right away an idea of the kind of environment that they lived in, and it showed right away that it was an abusive and unhealthy one. I also like that you picked the poem “I Hate Raisins” to relate it to the poverty, which would be part of the environment theme as well. The poem relates a lot to what some families have been through and still go through in our present time.

  12. In “When my brother was an Aztec”, by Natalie Diaz- three themes that were explored were environment, brother and body. The poem’s title focuses upon the speaker telling us about the characteristic of her brother in metaphor. She is interpreting that her brother is addicted to drugs. The metaphor of the Aztec/brother serves as a central image in Diaz’s personal belief. She portrays her brother as a fallen Aztec King where she becomes the warrior/ sister fighting to rescue her brother from the negative influences corrupting him. The reservation is where her brother is portrayed as ruining the household where there is only struggles and no love left. One quote that caught my attention was in stanza 4, “They fed him crushed diamonds and fire. He gobbled the gifts.” I would analyze it as being addicted to a high dose of drugs where there isn’t any control of stopping. The brother can’t stop once started which is causing a huge controversy in the lives of his parents.

    1. Hi Harman, I do agree on how Natalie Diaz uses metaphor when describing how addicted her brother was to drugs and his abuse of it. How she in a way is trying to save him from that corruption. Instead of putting it in blunt wording she chooses to describe it as if is were a gift ‘ when that’s far from it. It’s also very true that he can’t seem to leave it, the negative impact it has had on his family and living environment.

  13. The poems “Abecedarian Requiring Further Examination of Anglikan Seraphym Subjugation of a Wild Indian Reservation” and “Hand-Me-Down Halloween” are two examples that strongly illustrate the connection with the land. In both poems, the overall tone is rather dark and depressing but intriguing and mysterious enough to want to search for more. The first poem talks about angels and why they never come to the reservation. The author contradicts the meaning of angels throughout the poem. At first the author admits that death better defines the land and how it is almost sad you can’t find an angel there. Later the poet correlates colonizers/bad intentioned white people to angels and how they need to stay away in order to keep the order on the land. In the second poem, the author describes an experience of an Indian child’s first Halloween off the reservation and wears a white neighbor’s old Indian costume. The child is lightly mocked not only by his mother’s boyfriend, but more heavily mocked by the other white people in town.

    The overall feel for the land is that although it is not beautiful or bountiful, it is still home and where the characters can feel accepted and free. The land is more than a place as it has history and vast culture within it. The connection to the land is not only physical but also mental and spiritual. The poet’s life has been influenced by this connection to the land, as brotherhood and harmony seem to be important themes of these two poems. The poet has somehow even created a space even for readers that are not from the reservation to empathize with those feelings.

    1. *********Sorry the last sentence is so awkward, I meant to word that better but it came off bad T.T I meant we can get inside the author’s head an feel what she feels as if we were there with them.

    2. I find it interesting how the author compares white people to angels. As you mentioned, “Later the poet correlates colonizers/bad intentioned white people to angels…” I believe that the poem was written to show the hypocrisy of Christianity, or more specifically the people that follow in the name of god. This is because those who follow God puts nothing other than god on the top of their list, not even themselves. However, the author viewed it as how the white people came to this land pretending to be angels and God himself. “Remember what happened last time some white god came floating across the ocean?” As this can reference the ships that floated on the oceans, containing white people that came with the beliefs of Christianity, hailing their leader as their, “God”, like Christopher Columbus. I believe this would describe how the white colonists came to America believing that they are almighty, that they are above all the rest, acting as if they own people simply because they are within this system of Christianity.

  14. Late but I still wanted to post this.

    When my Brother Was an Aztec by Natalie Diaz describes three main themes. In this example, we will be using environment. In the specific theme, we will be using the poem, “Why I Hate Raisins”. Why this poem, specifically raisins, are significant to a person’s life is simply because the poem describes how hard it is to simply survive. One cannot simply get a nutritious meal, especially if it’s for two people. They have to depend on government-provided raisins. Although raisins are packed full of fiber and certain nutrients and minerals, eating raisins and only raisins is not good for the body simply because it is limited on what types of nutrients and minerals it has. Fiber does help one feel full, however it has no nutritional value. This means that even if they get free raisins from the government, they are not getting other food sources to to be healthy. They are also overeating the number of raisins recommended, as it should be eaten in moderation and not in a huge bulk. In this case, it is eaten in a huge bulk because a child was hungry. However, the child has no concept as to why this raisin was so important. The child is raised innocently, but as the child grows up, the child begins to realize how scarce the food was. This means that family matters a lot because they kept a lot of secrets from young children and tried to make the world not look as desperate as it actually was. The parent would willingly sacrifice her portion just to make sure that the child was protected physically as well as mentally shielding her child from the truth to make sure that they are blissfully ignorant to the events of the world. This means that the environment provided shows that family is the environment, as family means a lot to the point where one would willingly starve for another.

  15. In Natalie Diaz “When My Brother was an Aztec”, the poems allow us to reflect on the author’s life as a Native American who had moved away from the Mojave Reservation . Additionally, The Mojave reservation is what has allowed her to keep herself in tough with her roots and has influenced her environment, body. Her brother was another part of shaping her identity due to his drug abuse and it affected her parents as well. What stood out to me about her life as a Native American, was the racism that she experienced. In “Hand-Me-Down Halloween” she is described to have the color of her grandmas skin “reddish brown” and her mom’s “brown-redskin”, her skin tone made her different from the “white boys”. She was bullied for being Native American and had the word “half-breed” thrown at her as an insult. Moving from the reservation, she was given a hand-me-down costume along with other pieces of clothing from the same “whiteboy” who also picked on her in front of others for wearing his hand-me-downs. Her environment was additionally affected by their poverty which is proven in parts where they cannot afford even a sandwich and in this moment, she wishes to have been a white boy who did not have those same struggles. The Mojave reservation was clearly significant because it identified her as a person, what was brought into her environment, and signs that she was not fitting in.

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