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  1. Williamsburg, Brooklyn

    I consider Williamsburg, Brooklyn a second home. When my parents first separated, my father had moved to Ridgewood which is a city very close to it. I have many memories of us traveling into Williamsburg to get a quick bite to eat at the various restaurants they offer. I remember at this time, it had just started to become gentrified, but I wasn’t exactly sure what that meant then. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, gentrification is defined as, “the process of repairing and rebuilding homes and businesses in a deteriorating area (such as an urban neighborhood) accompanied by an influx of middle-class or affluent people and that often results in the displacement of earlier, usually poorer residents.” (“Gentrification”). I can see this one block clearly in my mind, rows of restaurants and brownstones followed by kids sitting outside on their stoops. Then once my friends began to get their first cars, Brooklyn was often a place we drove to. On the weekends there are always events such as “Smorgasburg”, a food fair with every cuisine you could think of. We would go to the pier on summer nights, with beautiful views of the Manhattan skyline across the river and new, modern condominiums being built around it. Here, I began to visit thrift shops which was all new to me. To this day, I am thankful for my dad bringing me to Williamsburg for the first time. He opened my eyes to new people, new restaurants and new environments that seem to change here at every corner. Williamsburg is a place I’d love to further explore.
    I chose Williamsburg as the place I’d like to explore for this reason, everywhere you go it so different. In North Williamsburg, the area is almost completely gentrified. The luxury developments are modern and the restaurants more expensive to fit the glamorous lifestyle of those living in such buildings. But if you travel more towards South Williamsburg, you see its true colors, residents that have been here their entire life and hidden gems on every couple of blocks. Something about the vast differences in both places piqued my curiosity.
    North Williamsburg, home to the perfect date night spot along the waterfront at East River State Park, a favorite of my friends, boyfriend and me. Here you can find what I like to call “Whole Paycheck” also known as “Whole Foods”, trendy boutiques that line Bedford Ave, straight off of the L train stop and overpriced bars that are downstairs neighbors with apartments right up above them. South Williamsburg has many popular, traditional restaurants, art museums and stunning street art seen against walls on most corners. It hasn’t always been this way though. Dating back to the early 1900’s, Williamsburg used to be an industrial city in which immigrants lived in order to work. There was a large Jewish population among the different immigrants that traveled to South Williamsburg. As stated by the Brooklyn Public Library, “With the building of the Williamsburg Bridge in 1903, thousands of Lower East Side Jews crossed the river to a better life in Williamsburg.” (“Our Brooklyn”). In the 1960s, many Hispanics such as Puerto Ricans, gathered together in crowded tenements. The Northside between the years of 1900 and 1920, became home to a large Polish and Italian population. Struggling artists were later welcomed and would soon after convert abandoned warehouses into lofts, galleries and shops, gentrifying North Williamsburg. It is evident that these diverse neighborhoods are being taken over by high-rise buildings and these neighborhoods are changing fast.
    Where is the in between of these two vastly different areas? The Northside and Southside of Williamsburg share many avenues and streets such as Wythe Ave, Bedford Ave and Grand Street. These streets can be seen as borderlines. As you walk south, vegan restaurants become bodegas. People shift from pea coats and business attire to uniquely dress hipsters in thrifted clothing. The in between lays within those that have survived the gentrification, the residents that still reside in the brownstones and sit on their stoops in the warmer months. According to Jason Patch, there are three types of residents. These residents include the original inhabitants, urban pioneers and the recently arrived. “The interiors of these three groups differed depending on tenancy and class position. Original inhabitants shape their interiors according to functional needs. Urban pioneers, early gentrifiers, are fetishistic collectors of antiques, pop art and obscure Americana. The pioneers convert their homes in order to display their collections. The recently arrived, wealthier gentrifiers tend towards minimal, white, modernist interiors.” (“The Embedded Landscape of Gentrification”). The original inhabitants keep Williamsburg roots planted despite eviction notices for up and coming developments. No matter where you are, whether it be Brooklyn or Ridgewood, Queens, the stoop kids will never leave their stoops. They have been part of Williamsburg before and after its changes. Now these are the type of people you turn to for the best food recommendations in town, not Yelp.

    In this image, there is graffiti seen against a wall in a heavily gentrified area of Brooklyn. The next question that arises after further investigating the split between these two neighborhoods is “How has Williamsburg transformed so quickly?” Well, the answer is quite clear. Brooklyn is connected to Manhattan through bridges such as the “Williamsburg Bridge” and easily accessible trains much like the L train line. The Williamsburg Bridge connects the Lower East Side of Manhattan to Brooklyn. Delancey Street is where you end up once you have crossed the popular suspension bridge. Here you will see yet another developed neighborhood, which also happens to be one of the fastest in the New York City. Much like Williamsburg, the Lower East Side was full of working-class immigrants and artists looking to pursue what they believed was the “American Dream”. With this is mind, it makes perfect sense that just over the bridge the same thing is happening, gentrification. Taking a closer look at the L train, it is known to transport those from Brooklyn to Manhattan or vice versa within three minutes. The first stop in Brooklyn would be Bedford Ave followed by some other popular stops such as Graham Ave and Grand St. Once these few, couple of stops have let out subway riders, it seems to be less crowded and the whole tone of the subway cart begins to change. Riders that get off at the first stop in Brooklyn are usually travelling for a bite to eat, a trendy tattoo shop or long blocks of shopping right outside the train station. This is the cheapest and easiest way to do so with the fare currently at $2.75 and a three-minute ride between 1 Ave and Bedford Ave.
    Williamsburg has so much to offer. Its history runs deep and is often still seen throughout with many restaurants repurposing old, warehouse pipes and other scrap materials. This is what draws me in every time. Although I seem to be here almost on most days, I tend to always learn something new, or something sparks my interest and I always leave with a different experience each time. There is still so much to explore in Williamsburg as new shops and events are constantly popping up at every corner. Through writing this paper, I have learned so much and connected the dots as to why Williamsburg is the way it is today. Different ethnic groups that came here once as immigrants looking to pursue work, give reason to the Puerto Rican-Chinese fusion restaurant that my dad once brought me to many years ago.

    Lastly, a picture that represents Williamsburg to me. In this image you see the most detailed, intricate street art, the Williamsburg bridge peaking behind Brooklyn’s finest apartments and construction on every building on what seems like every single block. The fire escapes and rooftops make for the most perfect summer hang out while a run on the Williamsburg Bridge gets you as pumped as the hustle and bustle of the Lower East Side. There is so much to do and so much see in this unique neighborhood. Although it has gone through its fair share of gentrification, the roots within South Williamsburg are planted deep and the northside offers those a grand experience. With public housing developments on one block and the most exclusive brunch spot on the other, you cannot say you haven’t seen it all until you’ve been to Williamsburg, Brooklyn.

    Work Cited

    “Gentrification.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gentrification.

    “Our Brooklyn.” Our Brooklyn – Williamsburg History, http://www.bklynlibrary.org/ourbrooklyn/williamsburg/.

    Patch, Jason. “The Embedded Landscape of Gentrification.” search.ebscohost.com.queens.ezproxy.cuny.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=15637052&site=ehost-live.

  2. Kalpesh Vyas 4/14/19
    Prof. Riazi ENG 162W

    Banning the Yatra Pilgrimage

    The pilgrimage known as the “Yatra” should be banned due to the horrific amount of tragedies and conflict that has been circling Amarnath temple since its discovery. Amarnath temple is a religious sanctuary located in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The temple sits on top of a mountain that is 12,756 ft from ground level. This temple is known for the ice sculpture known as “Linga” that resides in the cave of this temple as well as the backbreaking pilgrimage people make to reach it. The cave itself is 130 ft high and the trail that leads to it is surrounded by encampments made by people to rest from the long pilgrimage (Yatra). Jammu and Kashmir is on the northern border of India and is rather close to the border of Pakistan which recently has seen a lot of conflict. Currently the pilgrimage or Yatra is organised by the government with assistance from the Shri Amarnath Shrine Board. The government makes money by taxing pilgrims as well as provide local opportunities for people to earn money. There was a tax controversy in 2010 that required vehicles that are going to Amarnath has to pay 2000 indian rupees and then a additional 2000 indian rupees per day after.
    There is a road that runs up the mountain leading to the temple and people actually walk all the way up to the temple. The Indian people consider this as a pilgrimage called the “Yatra”. There is also the other options for transportation up the mountain you can have someone pull you up the mountain in a cart or just drive. Obviously people cannot walk all the way up to the temple in one shot so they have motels,lodges,tents for people to rest at. The problem with the lodges is some of them are unsanitary and are owned by locals who don’t know how to properly run a lodge/motel and are just trying to make some money. These facilities are not checked by the government to see if the conditions are sanitary, they are mostly checked to see if there is any crimes occurring in them. There is only 2 routes ascending up to Amarnath temple both take at least 1 day to travel there. The shortest route to Amarnath is through the Amarnath Valley which is 16 km long but the climb is very steep. In 2011 Amarnath received about 634,000 people participating in the Yatra which is the highest recorded visitors for the site. The giant number of people attending does not make the journey any better, it would actually make it even more difficult for people to not only climb up the path but to see the shrine itself. The routes/paths are rather narrow and since there is tents,lodges,motels there it leaves even less amount of space for the actual hikers. The other route goes through Pahalgam and takes about three to five days to travel up to the temple. This journey is not easy of course, the path through Pahalgam is technically the most easiest due to the fact that it is much less steeper and is more secured by the state authorities. Cell phones are also useless in these areas so if someone does collapse and if they need immediate attention they would have to run to a security checkpoint. Another reason that makes this journey dangerous is the education level of some of these people. In India a vast majority of the population is severely uneducated and this can lead to people getting lost or not being able to understand the problems the journey causes onto one’s body. In 2012 there was total of 622,000 pilgrims attempting to climb the mountain out of that 88 people died due to exhaustion and not being physically fit enough to walk the path. Another 42 people died due to road accidents, for a total of 130 deaths.
    From 1991 to 1995 the act of performing Yatra was banned due to threats of terrorism. In 1996 when the ban was lifted and people started to ascend up the mountain again a blizzard claimed the lives of 242 people. In 2000 there was a terrorist attack resulting in the death of 32 people. In 2001 a terrorist in the middle of the night threw a grenade at a camp and killed 13 people. In 2002 there was 2 terrorist attacks that killed a total of 11 people and injured 30. More recently in 2017 there was another terrorist attack in which 7 people died by a gunman. The tension between India and Pakistan is rising constantly and for Amarnath temple being located in between them, makes it a prime target for terrorists. The terrorists come from two seperate groups, one group is fighting to keep Jammu and Kashmir independent from India and Pakistan, the other group is for returning Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan. There is no real stopping to terrorism and no amount of security will prevent terrorism fully, just lessen the chances of it happening. Since Amarnath temple is at the center of the conflict between India and Pakistan it will be targeted by both groups of individuals.
    The Shri Amarnath Shrine Board is however currently updating their operations to make the journey more safe. They are adding more security and more medical facilities to make the journey more safe. They have also added more motels,lodges to accommodate more people that show up to the Yatra. The board also restricted the amount of people that are able to register for the pilgrimage for example in 2019 only 75,000 people are allowed to sign up for the pilgrimage. They also have an age restriction now, children below the age of 13 are not allowed as well as any elderly person above the age of 75 and pregnant women to perform the Yatra.The state has also provided buses and helicopters to make the journey easier but this defeats the purpose of the Yatra itself. The state government uses Amarnath temple for mostly tourism, since hundreds of thousands of people visit which in return gives them a good chunk of money. Also if the yatra does get banned then some people will be outraged because they would be denied their right to practice their religion in their own way.
    Performing the Yatra in my opinion should be banned. The journey is just too dangerous for most people to handle. In the past there has been a fair amount of tragedies that does cause people to hesitate before making the decision of performing the Yatra. The steps they took to make the Yatra more safe and easier to navigate does help in some ways. But this does not stop the terrorism that can come in the future and it does not stop people from performing the Yatra since it is tradition.

    Works Cited
    Holidify. “Shri Amarnath Yatra 2019 – Route, Dates and All You Need to Know.” Amarnath Yatra 2019 – Routes, Helicopter Booking, Dates, Holidify, 3 Apr. 2019, http://www.holidify.com/pages/amarnath-yatra-414.html.
    BHAT, ZAMEER AHMAD. “ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR.” CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management 4.4 (2013).

  3. NEWTOWN CREEK
    When I began to pursue my ungraduated degree at LaGuardia Community College I thought I was beginning a path towards becoming a Veterinarian Technician. I was desperate and eager to leave my office job on Wall Street to work with animals or nature. It took me two stressful and expensive semesters to realize I was only settling by pursuing the Veterinarian Technician program. It was a field that meant I would never make enough money to keep my financial anxiety at bay, and I would most likely be dealing with humans more than animals. To settle my confusion, I made an appointment with a woman at the college who carried credentials that I knew I needed to aim for. Dr. Holly Porter-Morgan is the director of the Environmental Science program at LaGuardia Community College and she became a close friend and mentor for me throughout my time at the school. Dr. Porter-Morgan conducts water quality testing at Newtown Creek in partnership with local advocacy groups and funding from the City. Her students participate in weekly water testing in her lab, and during my final semester at LaGuardia, I found myself there and finally on the right path, academically. While I learned so much about the biological sciences and working in the field, I also learned that research and testing at a particular site typically mean you are dealing with an area that is in dire straits.

    Newtown Creek is a 6.0 km waterway that flows between the Northwest portion of Brooklyn and the Southwest portion of Queens. The Creek is an inlet from the East River as it is flowing South to the New York Harbor. It separates Greenpoint, Brooklyn from Long Island City, Queens at its mouth then branches off first behind the LaGuardia Community College campus continuing under the Kosciusko Bridge. It then flows along the edges of Bushwick, Brooklyn and Maspeth, Queens where it eventually branches off with two heads leading towards the industrial areas of the two neighborhoods. The area of the Creek takes up approximately 140 acres of prime, and quickly developing, Brooklyn-Queens real estate.

    During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Creek was used for agricultural purposes by Native American and European settlers. The pastoral banks of the Creek were once lined with crop and livestock farms that produced items sold at markets in Manhattan. At that time, the Creek was fed by natural freshwater streams that mixed with the salty seawater that flowed past from the East River. It was a vibrant estuary ecosystem that supported many species of marine life and vegetation that attracted a wide variety of birds to its shores. During the time of the Industrial Revolution, the Creek became an important revenue resource for manufacturing and commerce. It was stripped of its natural lush environment and the freshwater streams were cut off and filled in by land. For maritime navigational purposes, the width of the Creek was widened by removing the natural shorelines and even removing a small island that had once popped up out of the center of the passageway. The basin was deepened for the heavy influx of cargo ships that were importing and exporting goods, but also oil to and from more than fifty refineries. Soon the Creek became a dumping ground for toxic and radioactive contaminants, raw sewage, and garbage.

    In 2010 Newtown Creek was declared a Superfund site by the Environmental Protection Agency. Locations deemed a Superfund site by the EPA are areas of heavy toxic contamination that pose a threat to public health. This also made the remediation and restoration of the Creek become a federal priority and held the parties responsible for the pollution accountable. These responsible parties were and still are, powerful names in the oil and gas communities. According to research carried out by the Newtown Creek Alliance, around thirty million gallons of oil has been soaked up by the soil surrounding Newtown Creek. During an investigation in the seventies, the Coast Guard discovered an oil plume that spanned the length of the Creek. It was discovered that for several decades major oil companies such as British Petroleum and ExxonMobil were leaking oil beneath the streets in Greenpoint. The companies faced lawsuits from local advocacy groups, as well as (at the time) Attorney General for the state of New York, Andrew Cuomo. Efforts to remediate the Creek and community of Greenpoint progressed at an extremely slow pace as time went on.

    In addition to toxic contamination from its industrial neighbors, two billion gallons of untreated sewage and storm water is dumped into the Creek from sewer outfall pipes on a yearly basis. New York City functions with a combined sewer system which collects rainwater runoff from the streets, as well as domestic and industrial wastewater within the same pipeline. The wastewater is then transported to a treatment facility like the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility where it is treated before being discharged into a nearby water body. However, when rain exceeds as little as a twentieth of an inch, the treatment plant may reach its capacity and untreated sewage is discharged directly into Newtown Creek. At LaGuardia, we tested samples of the surface water near these sewage outfall sites for levels of heavy metal toxins and enterococcus, a fecal indicator bacterium. High levels of this particular bacteria within the Creek are a hazard to the health of local wildlife and humans who may come into contact with the water. That bacteria also feeds the microscopic phytoplankton within the water causing them to rapidly reproduce resulting in algal blooms that blanket the water with a green hue. This blanket of algae blocks the sunlight from reaching vegetation that dwells at the bottom of the Creek. Those plants die, decompose, bacteria feast on the dead plants pull dissolved oxygen out of the water, depleting the Creek and its marine biota of its oxygen supply.

    To combat the depleted oxygen levels within the Creek, the New York City’s Department of Environmental Conservation proposed the installation of an aeration system at the Creek’s most heavily contaminated areas. These sites are often found furthest from the mouth of the Creek where fresh water from the East River mixes creek water during the changing tides. The aeration systems act similar to a fish tank, blowing oxygen into the water and creating surface bubbles. This plan was met with resistance from local environmental groups as they believed it would disrupt the marine ecosystem and the surrounding environment more than assist with remediation. During my time doing research at the Creek, we paddle a canoe to see first hand how the aeration worked. It seemed as if the portion of the Creek being fed oxygen from the system had turned into a jacuzzi. The system was loud which disturbs nearby bird habitats and also caused water particles to become airborne. According to research conducted by faculty at Queens College, these airborne water droplets also bond to contamination within the Creek and carry it to shore.

    I have many questions for Newtown Creek because I care deeply about natural environments that are struggling to survive in an impermeable urban environment and also because of my personal attachment to its waters. My first question is which anthropogenic activity caused the Creek to end up in the position it is in today? And if the Creek is in the middle of a federal remediation process is that negated by the City’s neglect to upgrade the sewer system? My second question is what effect does over a hundred years of contamination have on future plans for the Creek? In 2007 a nature walk opened in Greenpoint and visitors can now walk or sit along the banks of the Creek and learn about the different species of flora and fauna that inhabit the Creek. Now, plans are underway to completely transform areas of the tributary into public parks. If the health of the water can also be restored the Creek may open to the public for recreational use. Professors from LaGuardia Community College, as well as nonprofit advocacy groups such as Riverkeeper and the Billion Oyster Project, have already begun to use bioremediation as a technique to improve the water quality. Primitive plants that would have flourished in the once marshy body of water have been replanted along the edges, and floating docks with mussel cages have been put in place to help naturally filter the water.

    Conducting research at the Creek was a pivotal moment for me in my academic career because I worked alongside people who were passionate about this small marine ecosystem that had been so badly abused so long. The volunteers and advocates make their voices heard at community board meetings and work tirelessly for grants to continue testing the water. They also organize community outreach programs and host educational youth programs. It is the kind of company I always wish to keep and most importantly find myself intertwined with. When I started at LaGuardia Community College my focus for everything, even when it came to writing papers for English classes (not much has changed), was coexisting with wildlife in urban environments. Everything about those six words excited and intrigued me so when I would walk from the college’s campus, dodging cement trucks, climbing over (potentially dangerous) trash mounds from a tool and dye shop, and fetched the water samples from a volunteer in a kayak, I felt like I was doing exactly what I had left my mundane office job to do.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • “Newtown Creek Nature Walk.” Newtown Creek Nature Walk, www1.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/environmental_education/newtown.shtml.
    • “Project History.” NYS DEC Greenpoint Petroleum Remediation Project, http://www.nysdecgreenpoint.com/ProjectHistory.aspx.
    • “Greenpoint Oil Spill.” Newtown Creek Alliance, http://www.newtowncreekalliance.org/greenpoint-oil-spill/.
    • Local Environmental Pollution Strongly Influences Culturable Bacterial Aerosols at an Urban Aquatic Superfund Site. M. Elias Dueker, Gregory D. O’Mullan, Andrew R. Juhl, Kathleen C. Weathers, and Maria Uriarte. Environmental Science & Technology 2012 46 (20), 10926-10933 DOI: 10.1021/es301870t
    • “What Is Superfund?” EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 30 Nov. 2018, http://www.epa.gov/superfund/what-superfund.

  4. Diasmine Colin
    Instructor: Saba Riazi

    ENG 162W: Literature and Place
    4/16/19

    Dubai is the most popular and largest city located in the United Arab Emirates. “It started in AD 630 as a trade route, between Europe and Middle East”. Ancestors of Bedouin made this sandy passage their home and named it Abu Dhabi; this became an important location. They then paired with the British for protection and began to build. Beginning in the 1930s the first oil companies surveyed. In 1962, the first cargo of crude oil was exported from Abu Dhabi and this was the start of new beginnings. It is one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Being situated where it is, it makes an ideal hub for tourists coming from Asia and Europe.
    The city was just a desert before and there has been a lot of development until now. When it was one of the least developed city in the world, the rulers had to put a lot of effort to develop the country. Dubai has several unique things that feature the city to be better than other cities. Dubai has a magnificent location, the ability to expand to twice its size. Sheikh Zayed road can be taken as a great example. Looking into the past of it now, doesn’t seem like it was something as such before. In 1980’s the roads hardly consisted of two lanes and there were barely any buildings constructed. Now the road contains a minimum of 5 lanes and many buildings built in.
    In Dubai it seems as if the future is seen right now. Throughout the world many different crazy forms of architecture but perhaps the most modern and futuristic can be found in Dubai; the visual appeal of these buildings are indescribable. The main economic industry are in the financial industry oil trade, tourism and so on. Dubai has the world ‘s first seven-star hotel, the world ‘s largest shopping center, the world ‘s largest indoor ski resort, the tallest tower in the world, a continuously oil support and an important trade port status. Therefore, Dubai has brought great wealth, and become synonymous with luxury.
    Why is it so successful, and what is it that makes it so outstanding? According to expert.gov (United Arab Emirates – Oil and Gas Field Machinery and Services)
    The United Arab Emirates holds extensive vitality saves. The U.A.E. is the world’s seventh biggest raw petroleum maker and the fourth biggest maker of oil fluids in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Furthermore, the U.A.E. holds the seventh biggest flammable gas saves comprehensively. Hydrocarbon creation stays basic to the U.A.E. economy, adding up to $65 billion or around 20 percent of all fare income, as indicated by the U.S. Vitality Information Administration. The U.A.E. controls its very own oil and gas creation and asset improvement. Abu Dhabi holds 94 percent of the U.A.E’s. oil saves, or around 90 billion barrels (2017), which can be discovered both seaward and inland. Furthermore, Dubai holds an expected 4 billion barrels of oil, trailed by Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah with 1.5 billion and 100 million barrels of oil, individually. In Abu Dhabi, the Supreme Petroleum Council builds up the Emirate’s oil related goals and approaches. Abu Dhabi’s situation as a focal player in the U.A.E’s. oil industry and more extensive economy implies that the SPC is viewed as the nation’s most essential substance with respect to vitality arrangement.
    The U.A.E. delivered 3.7 million barrels for every day (b/d) of oil and different fluids in 2016, of which 2.9 million b/d was raw petroleum and leftover portion was non-unrefined fluids. The state-claimed Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) and its working organizations are growing the yield of raw petroleum to 3.5 million bpd by 2020, which the nation plans to keep up until 2027. As demonstrated stores are required to remain moderately consistent, expanded creation will subsequently depend on improved oil recuperation (EOR) rehearses in the present fields. Carbon dioxide (CO2) infusion extends in Rumaitha and Bab are instances of such activities. ADNOC is additionally building up the nation’s downstream enterprises, with accentuation on petrochemicals and plastics. The U.A.E. produces 4.65 billion cubic feet (bcf) a day of gas 3.85 bcf a day in Abu Dhabi and 0.5 bcf a day in Dubai. The U.A.E. has a very much created household pipeline organize that joins delivering oil fields with preparing plants and seven fare terminals. Abu Dhabi Crude Oil Pipeline (ADCOP) development of generation in oil and gas fields, both inland and seaward, gives opportunities across a wide range of technologies and services. Dubai is becoming quicker than its neighbors as the No. 3 provincial traveler goal behind Turkey and Saudi Arabia.
    According to (Dubai’s the Very Model of a Modern Mideast Economy) by Matthew A. Winkler, The system for making the emirate a green economy incorporated an approach of extending framework. Indeed, even as oil costs declined 50 percent in 2014, development proceeded with unabated for Expo 2020, which plans to feature “opportunity, versatility and supportability” with a particular spotlight on instruction, money related capital, coordination’s, characteristic environments and biodiversity, among other themes. Between 2009 and 2012, when oil multiplied its esteem, the Dubai financial exchange acknowledged 14 percent and its land organizations picked up 48 percent. Dubai Financial Market General Index, comprising of 36 organizations. Dubai currently is ready to be the development chief among the six nations in the Gulf Cooperation Council, with GDP growing 3 percent or more this year and in 2019, as indicated by financial specialists reviewed by Bloomberg.
    The most immaculate Architecture is not yet built, the buildings being designed and built are almost unfathomable. The city’s 2,717-foot Burj Khalifa is the world’s tallest structure, transcending Jebel Ali, the ninth-biggest port. The determined duty to foundation improvement transformed Dubai into the Mideast center for account, data innovation, land, transporting and even flowers. Dubai has created its own architecture style, they have created a very high mark for the rest of the world.
    What is the culture of the people in the city like?
    According to (Dubai International City: A melting pot of cultures) by Sarwat Nasir, The global City satisfies its name truly as it offers precisely that a worldwide experience. It has a wide range of nation themed constructing groups and offers cooking styles from everywhere throughout the world. It’s the biggest exchanging center point of Chinese items outside Mainland China. It’s where you can spend your whole day at, however a guide of the zone is exceptionally suggested in case you’re new to the headings inside the mall. As of now, rents for a one-room loft at the China Cluster, for instance, run from Dh32, 000 to Dh37, 000 every year. A studio with a gallery is going for about Dh25, 000. An Indian inhabitant who has lived and worked at the Russia Cluster for a long time now, Sooraj Nair said he’s not amazed that numerous expats have been moving into the area, as the territory offers reasonableness, comfort and an assortment of feasting and retail options. “Several families and people of different nationalities have migrated to International City throughout the years. The purposes behind this advancement is the development of the streets and late opening of flyovers close to Al Warsan,” said Nair. “These street arrange improvements have truly helped facilitate the traffic all through International City. In addition, there is a wide assortment of cooking styles accessible here, urging us to take a stab at delectable universal dishes. Shopping is additionally not an issue with Dragon Mart and The Pavilion Mall close-by.” There are in excess of 387 structures crosswise over International City with around 5,000 ground-floor retail units. Also, the public bus network is very convenient for all the residents here who don’t have a car. If I want to go anywhere in Dubai, there’s a bus here that will get me there.
    The culture of local people and their national traditions, which have been developing over the centuries in Dubai, do not cease to amaze visitors with their beauty and originality. Virtually every area of life has its own unique customs, following which is considered a duty for local residents. During a walk through the streets of the city you can see people dressed in beautiful national costumes. In Dubai many people wear it not only on holidays, but also in their everyday life. The official language in Dubai is Arabic, however most people in and out of the workplace communicate in English. Religion plays a significant role in the culture of Dubai. Mosques are found throughout the city.The city also houses other religious places of worship, such as churches and Temples. Tourists are also allowed to visit the local mosques and cultural/religious buildings to get a real feel of the way of life there,
    Why am interested in exploring Dubai? I want to travel to Dubai for its pristine sandy beaches, blue water and palm trees. Dubai is known for its very beautiful and clear beaches. Jump in and out of the crystal clear waters on Kite Beach, you can see under the water and the trees are so green. For its clear skies and little rain. For their cultures, gourmet food, for example In Dubai you can get any style of food you desire. The main restaurants in the region take inspiration from Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Shopping malls, museums, aqua parks and ancient remains. Also one get to see the world’s tallest skyscraper, it will be a sight that will never be forgotten.

    Works Cited page

    Trade Shows & Exhibitions. “United Arab Emirates – Oil and Gas Field Machinery and Services.” Export.gov Helping U.S. Companies Export , 23 Apr. 2018, doi:https://www.export.gov/article?id=United-Arab-Emirates-Energy-Power.
    Winkler, Matthew A. “Dubai’s the Very Model of a Modern Mideast Economy Saudi Arabia Is Trying to Reduce Its Dependence on Oil. A Neighbor Has Already Done It.” https://Www.bloomberg.com/Opinion/Articles/2018-01-14/Dubai-s-the-Very-Model-of-a-Modern-Mideast-Economy, 13 Jan. 2018.
    Nasir, Sarwat. “Dubai International City: A Melting Pot of Cultures.” TCA Regional News, Nov 13, 2018. http://queens.ezproxy.cuny.edu:2048/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2132291066?accountid=13379.

  5. Ramon Naula
    English-162W
    03/05/2019
    Research proposal

    When I use to live In Ecuador my mother would tell me stories about an island far from the the coast of South America. She used to say that it was a beautiful place to visit but that it was constantly exploited by fisherman and smugglers because of its diverse ecosystem it contained.
    Everyone I asked just new a few facts about the Islands, schools in Ecuador would teach the story of Charles Darwin but they wouldn’t go more in dept with its past. I have been always curious to know more about this place and why it is so special to the people. This particular place is part of Ecuadorian territory located around 1,000 km (600 miles) away from the coast of South America. It contains 19 islands in which 2 areas are considered protected areas or “sanctuaries for wildlife”.
    According to “la historia de las Islas Galápagos” by Laura. She states that part of the east side of the region consist of the oldest islands and the west side has the newest formed islands. In addition to her statemed most of the newest islands are part of “protected land” because of the fertility of the land it will contribute on creating and maintaining the ecosystem for the vast diversity of fauna and flora of the region.
    Santa cruz island is the second largest land formation in the entire region with Puerto Ayora been the area with most of the population in the Galapagos. According to “Galapagos conservancy”. Human population in the island is limited by 3% and most of the population live in coastal regions, also the population in Puerto Ayora is of 9,208 people and it continues growing due to the increase of tourism, industrialisation and government’s expeditions. The island are all well protected by the Ecuadorian government however money is needed in order for the government to continue the protection for the land and it was forced to increase Tourism in small areas of the region and it had to open the land for further environmental expeditions with national and international entities.
    Galapagos island has a rich ecosystem containing unique species of animals and plants. According to “Galapagos.gov” One of the Famous species of animals known in Galapagos are the giant tortoises. The last of This species was named “lonesome George” and he weighed 165 pounds. During my time in Ecuador I was following the process for maintaining the Giants tortoises species. It used to be a big dilemma every time it was on national TV. Researchers tried to breed Lonesome george with other small species of tortoises however unfortunately all the attempts were negative and in June 24, 2012 The last of The Galapagos giant tortoises got extinct.
    Now The most important question of all. How was this particular region in the Pacific ocean discover. Is very important to know that in colonial times Europeans will come to the Americas by crossing the Atlantic ocean, They will use the atlantic ocean for a lot of stuff including Trade, traveling, contraband and confrontations. However and according to “ La historia de las Islas Galápagos” A fast way to reach the east side of the Americas was to stop in central america and change ports to the Pacific ocean.The Bishop of Panamá, Tomas de Berlanga, was the first known person to step into the Galapagos in 1535 by accident. He was on his way to Peru to solve some Political innuendos but He was blown of course while sailing the Pacific ocean. When he sow the islands for the first time he claimed that the Islands were inhabitable, a horrible place where life can’t be formed , but in fact he was wrong because volcanic soil is one of the most fertile soil that can exist in the world due to the amount of minerals that that a volcanic eruption take with it on the way out to the surface. After his discovery other researches went to the islands and gave it the name of “Enchanted Islands” The sailors gave the islands that name because of the difficulty to navigate around it, The sailors thought that the islands disappear and appear like magic and this caused accidents and lost ships. It was due to strong currents and frequent fog That the islands were hard to find and hard to navigate.
    There are two ways to reach Galapagos islands. The first option will be by boat starting From Guayaquil to Santa Cruz island. The second option will be the least time consuming by flying from the capital of Ecuador “Quito” towards Baltra island. According to “Galapagos.gov” The largest island in the Galapagos region is Isabela Island In honor to Queen Isabel de castilla who founded Cristobal Colon’s trip to the Enchanted islands. This island was formed by the movement of tectonic plates which fused together five volcanoes, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, Salcedo, Darwin and Wolf. The Galapagos Island was given the title of national treasure by the UNESCO in 1978, and until this day The Ecuadorian government is taking care of the land and its species with strict laws that will not harm the ecosystem or let the population of the islands overgrow and interfere with the natural habitats.
    Questions:
    What are the laws at the island?
    What are some of the species of wildlife in the island ?
    Sources :
    Historia de las islas galápagos http://galapagoshostalcerroazul.com/historia-de-isabela.html
    Galápagos Ecuador
    http://www.galapagos.gob.ec/
    En los dos lados del atlántico
    https://blogs.helsinki.fi/temashispanicos/?p=75
    Isla Santa cruz
    https://www.galapagos.org/about_galapagos/about-galapagos/people-today/

    1. This is the corrected version.
      Ramon Naula
      English-162W
      04/16/2019
      The Enchanted Islands

      When I use to live In Ecuador my mother would tell me stories about an island far from the the coast of South America. She used to say that it was a beautiful place to visit but that it was constantly exploited by fisherman and smugglers because of the diverse ecosystem it contained.
      Everyone I asked just new a few facts about the Islands, schools in Ecuador would teach the story of Charles Darwin but they wouldn’t go more in dept with its past. I have been always curious to know more about this place and why it is so special to the people. This particular place is part of Ecuadorian territory located around 1,000 km (600 miles) away from the coast of South America. It contains 19 islands in which 2 areas are considered protected areas or “sanctuaries for wildlife”.
      According to “la historia de las Islas Galápagos” (The history of The Galapagos) by Laura. She states that part of the east side of the region consist of the oldest islands and the west side has the newest formed islands. In addition to her statemented most of the newest islands are part of “protected land” because of the fertility of the land it will contribute on creating and maintaining the ecosystem for the vast diversity of fauna and flora of the region.
      Santa cruz island is the second largest land formation in the entire region with Puerto Ayora been the area with most of the population in the Galapagos. According to “Galapagos conservancy”. Human population in the island is limited by 3% and most of the population live in coastal regions, also the population in Puerto Ayora is of 9,208 people and it continues growing due to the increase of tourism, industrialisation and government’s expeditions. The island are all well protected by the Ecuadorian government however money is needed in order for the government to continue the protection for the land and it was forced to increase Tourism in small areas of the region and it had to open the land for further environmental expeditions with national and international entities.
      Galapagos island has a rich ecosystem containing unique species of animals and plants. According to “Galapagos.gov” One of the Famous species of animals known in Galapagos are the giant tortoises. The last of This species was named “lonesome George” and he weighed 165 pounds. During my time in Ecuador I was following the process for maintaining the Giants tortoises species. It used to be a big dilemma every time it was on national TV. Researchers tried to breed Lonesome George with other small species of tortoises however unfortunately all the attempts were negative and in June 24, 2012 The last of The Galapagos giant tortoises got extinct.
      Now The most important question of all. How was this particular region in the Pacific ocean discover. Is very important to know that in colonial times Europeans will come to the Americas by crossing the Atlantic ocean, They will use the atlantic ocean for a lot of stuff including Trade, traveling, contraband and confrontations. However and according to “ La historia de las Islas Galápagos” A fast way to reach the east side of the Americas was to stop in central america and change ports to the Pacific ocean.The Bishop of Panamá, Tomas de Berlanga, was the first known person to step into the Galapagos in 1535 by accident. He was on his way to Peru to solve some Political innuendos but He was blown of course while sailing the Pacific ocean. When he sow the islands for the first time he claimed that the Islands were inhabitable, a horrible place where life can’t be formed , but in fact he was wrong because volcanic soil is one of the most fertile soil that can exist in the world due to the amount of minerals that that a volcanic eruption take with it on the way out to the surface. After his discovery other researches went to the islands and gave it the name of “Enchanted Islands” .The story has been told by generation, how ever is always a little different in a way. The sailors gave the islands that name because of the difficulty to navigate around it. The sailors thought that the islands disappear and appear like magic and this caused accidents and lost ships. It was due to strong currents and frequent fog That the islands were hard to find and hard to navigate but for them it was a curse and some sort of evil magic.
      There are two ways to reach Galapagos islands. The first option will be by boat starting From Guayaquil to Santa Cruz island. The second option will be the least time consuming by flying from the capital of Ecuador “Quito” towards Baltra island. According to “Galapagos.gov” The largest island in the Galapagos region is Isabela Island In honor to Queen Isabel de castilla who founded Cristobal Colon’s trip to the Enchanted islands. This island was formed by the movement of tectonic plates which fused together five volcanoes, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, Salcedo, Darwin and Wolf. The Galapagos Island was given the title of national treasure by the UNESCO in 1978, and until this day The Ecuadorian government is taking care of the land and its species with strict laws that will not harm the ecosystem or let the population of the islands overgrow and interfere with the natural habitats.
      Questions:
      What is the story of the islands?
      What are some of the species of wildlife in the island ?
      Sources :
      Historia de las islas galápagos http://galapagoshostalcerroazul.com/historia-de-isabela.html
      Galápagos Ecuador
      http://www.galapagos.gob.ec/
      En los dos lados del atlántico
      https://blogs.helsinki.fi/temashispanicos/?p=75
      Isla Santa cruz
      https://www.galapagos.org/about_galapagos/about-galapagos/people-today/

  6. Jenise Lopez
    Professor Riazi
    ENG 162W
    13 April 2019

    “The Statue of Liberty”

    For many people around the world Lady Liberty symbolizes hope, freedom, opportunity and democracy. She is a reminder to the world that you should never feel hopeless; where there is a will there is a way, you just need to have faith. For me the Statue of Liberty is a strong reminder of my mother and our bond. The Statue of Liberty has different meanings in my mind and heart. My mind understands her historical meaning, significance and her importance. My heart on the other hand has been fighting its own battle. My heart has been fearful and afraid to face her for a long time. With this paper I hope to gain knowledge and enlighten everyone with important facts about Lady liberty and gain the confidence to face my fear.
    When I was a little girl I visited lady Liberty every spring with my mom and brother. It was like a tradition for us. We’d take that amazing ferryboat ride which I looked forward each time. The sight of the large buildings as we were approaching the island where this woman stood tall was spectacular. This empowering symbol of strength and power in middle of all this water and island. Running off the ferryboat when we’d arrive and running towards lady liberty. “Oh how I could visualize it as if it were just yesterday.” This was always a fun trip each time for us. After my mom passed away when I was only 9, I was never able to go back. My brother was older than I and always tried to get me to go but I always made excuses. Even as an adult I have not been able to return to Liberty Island. I feared facing Lady Liberty because of my mom. It would be a painful reminder that my mom had died. Facing the memories and déjà vu while being there scared me. I stayed away because it kept me in control of my feelings; well at least that is what I thought till recently. As I started the proposal for this paper, I realized there is so much about the beautiful national landmark that I do not know. The memories I have are all personal and visual; I don’t know any real history besides the obvious symbolizations that I learned in school. My fear has interfered in me connecting with my past and with an important part of history, but that ends now. My daughters and I have agreed that we all really want to go as a family including my husband and brother to tour and experience this beautiful place as I once did with my mom. My brother is super happy to know that I finally want to go, as he went last summer, and of course I did not go with him. We are going to go one weekend in May of June after the school semester ends where we can go together as a family/
    The Statue of Liberty originally named “Liberty Enlightening the world” was a gift from France to the United States in 1886. It was meant to commemorate the alliance of France and US. She is located on a small island on Upper New York Bay called Liberty Island. Right across is Ellis Island, which is where so many immigrants arrived for entry into the United States. Once they saw the Statue of Liberty they knew they were at the end of their long journey to freedom. They finally made it… Lady liberty stands at 151 feet tall; with the pedestal she stands 305 feet tall. (“How Tall Is the Statue of Liberty?” World Atlas, 2017) The statue was originally copper but began to oxidize and have the green patina color it now has.
    French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was assigned the task of building a representation/ monument of liberty. It was built in time for centennial for declaration of independence. (Editors, History.com. “Statue of Liberty.” 2009) Lady liberty wears a robe almost like a Goddess. She holds up high with her right hand an illuminated torch that is always lit to guide the way for sailors. It its said that is illuminates the path to freedom. She holds a tablet, which till this day I thought was a book. The tablet has the words JULY IV MDCCLXXVI inscribed on it. That translates to July 4, 1776, which represents the date of the United States declaration of independence. (“How Tall Is the Statue of Liberty?” World Atlas, 2017). Lady Liberty wears a crown, which has 7 points that represent the seven continents and the seven seas. Lady liberty also has chain/ shackles that represent freedom and the abolition of slavery.
    The Statue of Liberty gets approximately 3.5 million visitors per year. This spring of 2019 they will be unveiling a new museum. This museum is meant to educate and to give visitors a deeper understanding of the history and significance of the Statue of Liberty. Prior to the unveiling of this museum, Lady Liberty currently has a museum in the lobby of the pedestal. It houses important artifacts and information about its history. With the new Museum about top unveil many of the artifacts have been moved to the new museum. The original torch will be displayed in the new museum.
    Recently there has been some political resistance. The Statue has been used in protest against political motives. An activist, a woman by the name of Theresa Patricia Okoumou climbed lady liberty in protest of all the undocumented children being held in US detention facilities. (“Woman Who Climbed Statue of Liberty in Immigration Protest Found Guilty.” 17 Dec. 2018) She climbed on the fourth of July, which if the US day of Independence. The brought forward the very opposite of what was being celebrate on July 4th. These were children being help NOT free, and what better day or better way to protest than on July 4th climbing the very symbol of freedom, opportunity. These are political issues that continue to grow and this was her way to shed light and put attention on what is going on with these children. Prior to the attempt to climb we face terrorists threat, especially right after the September 11 attacks. To protect Lady liberty, it was closed to the public for 100 days. It was a no fly zone near the statue. When she was eventually reopened the crown was off limits for approx. 5 years. When it eventually reopened, reservations had to be made in order to access the crown.
    It’s funny and surreal researching and writing about Lady Liberty because there is so much I did not know or remember. I feel like I knew some of these details but blocked it out of my mind in my hurry to forget. Now I am excited to share stories with my daughters. I am looking forward to knowing that when I visit the Statue of Liberty with my daughters, husband and brother that I am going to get flash backs and memories of my mom that have been forgotten. My brother and I will finally be able to reminisce about the past and times we shared there with my mother. Many people do not understand how I would want to forget a place that my bonded with my mom, but that is NOT what I was doing. I was just afraid to be reminded that I lost her forever and in doing so I am missing the opportunity to reflect on the times that we shared and the happiness that I felt. I won’t do that anymore. I want to remember…I want to connect. I also look forward to visiting the new museum, which I did not get to visit with my mom since of course it did not exist. However I am blessed to have the opportunity to visit it with my daughters. I will build new memories with my girls to add to the memories I made with mom. I am no longer fearful; I am inspired. I will no longer take Lady Liberty and my personal connections for granted. I realize it’s a blessing. There are so many who do not have this opportunity and I will no longer take it for granted.

    Works Cited

    Kiprop, Joseph. “How Tall Is the Statue of Liberty?” WorldAtlas, 22 Nov. 2017, http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/how-tall-is-the-statue-of-liberty.html.

    Editors, History.com. “Statue of Liberty.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2 Dec. 2009, http://www.history.com/topics/landmarks/statue-of-liberty.

    Hoenig, Leonardj. “The Statue of Liberty’s Complexion.” JAMA Dermatology, vol. 149, no. 3, Mar.
    2013, p. 306. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.2415.

    Bekiempis, Victoria. “Woman Who Climbed Statue of Liberty in Immigration Protest Found Guilty.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 17 Dec. 2018, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/dec/17/statue-of-liberty-climber-trial-us-immigration.

  7. Fiji is a very popular tourist destination that many people visit yearly. Even though Fiji is a popular tourist attraction that is popular for its clear waters and beaches many people don’t know about Fiji culture or traditions and etc. While Fiji is known as a beautiful place to vacation to it is also a interesting place full of interesting customs and traditions and it even has a interesting geographical make up.

    Fiji has three official languages which are Fijian, English, and Hindustani. About less than half the population speak Fijian as their first language, while the other half speak it as a second language. English is used in interethnic communication, administration, government, trade, commerce, and education. Fijian and Hindi are mostly spoken at home and used in religious context and radio and television.

    Most Fijians are mostly Christians and the Indo-Fijians are mostly Hindu and Muslim. Christianity is the dominant religion in Fiji and it is practiced by 64.4 percent of the population. In terms of Christianity in Fiji, Methodism is the most dominant Christian denomination followed by Anglicanism and Catholicism. Hinduism is the second major religion in Fiji. It is practiced by 27.9 percent of the population. There are many Hindu temples including the most famous one the Krishna temple of ISKCON which is ISCON’s biggest temple outside of India. There are also many schools and other places built and used by the Hindu community. The religion of Islam is also practiced in Fiji and Muslims make up 6.3 percent of the population. The majority of Muslims are Sunnis while the rest belong to other denominations. Although there is freedom to practice all religion granted by the countries constitution there have been many religious conflicts. Between the years of 1980s and 2000 Hindus were the victims of religious persecutions and many of them were forced to move to other countries. There has even been the burning of Hindu temples. In recent years politicians have pushed for Christianity to be the state religion of Fiji but nothing has been implemented yet. Fiji is a very multi racial and multi cultural place. They welcome visitors to join them in church and other religious activities.

    The Fijian culture is a relaxed and friendly culture and in fact they are some of the friendliest people you will ever meet, but they do take their customs very seriously and it is important to respect them. They have customs like when you are invited into someone’s home you must be gracious and thank your host and take your shoes off before entering and leave them at the door. While speaking with the chief of a village it is respectful to take your hat off while talking to him, also in the Fijian culture it is considered a insult to touch someone’s head. When you greet someone you must be polite and shake hands. Kava is Fiji’s most well known social custom and an important experience. Kava is a unique ritual and if offered to join it is a unique experience and there is a drink that has a unique numbing effect. It is made from the roots of the pepper shrub. In a traditional ceremony the chief of the village drinks first then the other members of the village in the order of status. There is also another cultural tradition called Lovo which is a feast in which the food is cooked in a hole in the ground using fire, wood, and stone. There is also a dance called Meke which tells stories of love, history, spirits and tales of the island. It can be performed by men, women or children. The women wear traditional clothing and garlands of flower and the men are dressed as warriors with spears and they use different musical instruments as percussion. As a sign of thanks it is tradition to offer a gift. Fijians are very friendly people and they are are sometimes very eager to invite you into their home but it is always important that you respect their tradition and customs.

    Fijians have received bean stew peppers, unleavened bread, rice, vegetables, curries, and tea from the Indian people , while Indians have adjusted to eating taro and cassava and drinking kava. However , the eating regimens of the two gatherings remain very different. A conventional Fijian supper incorporates a starch, savors, and a drink. The starch segment, which is alluded to as “real food,” is typically taro, yams, sweet potatoes, or manioc yet may comprise of tree harvests, for example, breadfruit, bananas, and nuts. On account of its simplicity of development, manioc has turned into the most broadly devoured root crop. Relishes incorporate meat, fish and seafood, and leafy vegetables. Canned meat and fish are likewise prominent. Vegetables regularly are bubbled in coconut milk, another dietary staple. Soup is made of fish or vegetables. Water is the most well-known drink, however coconut water and natural product squeezes likewise are smashed. Tea and an implantation of lemon leaves are served hot. Individuals by and large eat three dinners per day, however there is much fluctuation in feast times and eating is normal. Most nourishment is broiled, roasted or fried. Meals are served on a tablecloth spread on the floor tangle inside the house. The night supper, which is normally the most formal, requires the nearness of all the relatives and may not start without the male leader of the family. Men are served first and get the best sustenances and the biggest segments. Dinners are intended to be shared as a declaration of social harmony .

    The Fijian and Indo-Fijian societies are very patrifocal, and women are usually subordinate to her husband in relation to leadership. Except if she is a woman of high position, she has little impact in her town. In spite of the fact that young ladies are proven to do better than young men in schools, the ratio of women to men who get an advanced education is very low. Rising poverty levels have constrained numerous women into the lowest positions of working class employments, and there has been an expansion in the quantity of female-headed families and a disintegration of customary family esteems. Women are frequently victims of abusive behavior at home and are over-spoken to among the jobless and poor people. Fijian women have made more noteworthy advances than have Indo-Fijian women, regularly through the endeavors of the National Council of Women, which has a program that energizes more prominent political involvement among women.

    Fiji has a very interesting geographical make up. It is a group of many volcanic islands, and to be exact it is made up of 332 islands. Of its 332 islands only 110 of them are inhibited. Fiji’s many islands were formed way back around 150 million years ago through volcanic activity and now today many of them are covered in thick tropical forest. Most of the mountains in Fiji are either dormant or extinct volcanoes, and even though most of the volcanic activity is inactive there are still some activity on the islands of Vanua Levu and Tavenui. The two main islands Viti Levu and Vanua Levu account for about 87% of the population which is about 850,000. The capital of Fiji is Suva and is located on Viti Levu. Almost three quarters of the entire population live on Suva. Important towns in Fiji include Nadi which is the location of the international airport and Lautoka which is a seaport. Other important islands include Kadavu Island, the Lau Group, the Mamanuca Islands and the Yasawa Islands. Due to Fiji’s abundance of forrest, mineral and fishing resources it is one of the most developed economies in the Pacific Island area today. Natural resources include timber, fish, gold, copper, and offshore oil and hydropower. Fiji also has a large amount of tourism with many people choosing the islands of Nadi or Denarau Island as their preferred destination. A large amount of the tourist that to come to visit Fiji come from Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America. The climate In Fiji is typically very humid and there is usually a lot of rainfall among the coast and a more drier climate in the interior.

    Fiji is mostly known as a tourist destination that is popular for its clear water and sandy beaches but besides that people don’t really know about Fiji culture or traditions or the geographical make up. Most people don’t know things like Fiji is made up of 332 different islands or that Fiji has three official languages. Fiji is more than just a place to vacation to its a place full of interesting history and culture and etc. I think more people should learn about Fiji and discover the different things Fiji has to offer besides a vacation. I think if more people learn about Fiji they too will become more interested and as amazed as I was doing this research into Fiji and will want to learn more.

    Bibliography
    “Customs in Fiji.” Gap Year, http://www.gapyear.com/australasia/fiji/local-customs-fiji.
    “Fiji.” Countries and Their Cultures, http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Fiji.html.
    Nag, Oishimaya Sen. “Religion in Fiji: Important Facts and Figures.” WorldAtlas, 25 Aug. 2017, http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/religion-in-fiji-important-facts-and-figures.html.

  8. Samantha Henry
    Professor Riazi
    April 16, 2019
    ENG 162W
    First Draft

    Trench Town, Jamaica is known to be an iconic place that holds historical significance to Jamaican culture. Trench Town is in the parish of St. Andrews. St. Andrews shares a municipality of Kingston, the largest city and capital of Jamaica. Trench Town has influenced Jamaica by being the birthplace of Reggae, it has left an impact on the social culture, it has inspired the community through the Trench Town Reading Centre and has kept the history alive with Reggae music and the Trench Town Culture Yard Museum.
    Trench Town, originally known as Trench Pen, was established in the 1940s. Trench Town was once 400 acres of land used for livestock by Daniel Power Trench, who was an Irish immigrant. In the late 19th century, Trench and his family had abandoned the land. It was later developed into one of Jamaica’s most ambitious social engineering projects (Rhiney and Cruse 2). It was transformed by the Jamaican government in order to develop housing projects These housing projects were a necessity to provide low cost housing to Kingston’s rapidly increasing urban population and growing number of squatter settlements. Totaling only 60,000 people in 1900, Kingston’s population had increased rapidly to 380,000 by 1960. Many Jamaicans who were living in impoverished neighborhoods would flood into these projects from the rural parts of the country searching for a better life. Trench town and other projects were set up with residential communities by the Central Housing Authority (CHA). These residential communities would later occupy housing, schools, a theater, a park, a health clinic and many more. In the 1950s and 60s these government owned houses would have milk and bread be delivered door to door to ensure the tenants were paying twelve shillings per month after they were occupied. In the early 1970s Trench Town had become unstable and dangerous due to the large concentration of marginalized and impoverished households’(Rhiney and Cruse 2).
    Trench Town was a prime target for the two rivalling Jamaican political parties—the People’s National Party (PNP) and the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). In the mid-1960s, new housing units were built to accommodate a high population of political supporters of whichever party was in power (Rhiney and Cruse 3). This had later created politically-motivated violence between people who supported the two rivalling parties. The violence continued within the 1990s, taking many lives that were residing in the highly impoverished neighborhoods of West Kingston—including communities like Trench Town, Denham Town, Tivoli, and many more (Rhiney and Cruse 3).
    Although Trench Town had high levels of unemployment, poverty, political and gang violence, and overcrowded neighborhoods, Trench Town was also recognized as being unique and iconic for being the birthplace of Reggae music. Reggae music quickly became the country’s dominant music and by the 1960’s it had become very popular internationally, particularly in the United States, Britain, and Africa. Reggae music expressed the struggles and the pressures of the ghetto life and addressed social and economic injustice that was happening not only in the Jamaica, but around the world. It also emerged due to the oppression and political pressure faced by the residents (Aimers).
    Also, Rastafarianism contributed to the cultural significance of Reggae music. Many musicians were encouraging for people to get closer to Rastafarianism and murals were painted in Trench Town to display images of Rastafarian culture and beliefs. Rastafarians in Jamaica supported the relocation of the African diaspora to Africa, worshiping the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I, and endorsed the use of ganga, known also as marijuana. Rastafarians most significant impact was within the music used by the singers of reggae music (Aimers). It was apparent in the lyrics and performances of the musicians and it became more than just entertainment. Rastafarianism was one of the main mediums to speak against political and social injustices. It awakened the Jamaican people to become closer to their African identity, to have more black pride and to be more conscious (Aimers). There was a new voice for the masses and a new form of self-representation which lead to a better relationship between African and Jamaican culture (Rhiney and Cruse 7).
    Many notable musicians and politicians grew up in Trench Town. For example, the Reggae legend Bob Marley spent most of his youth in Trench Town. Bob Marley also developed passion for music at a young age and was inspired by his childhood friend Neville “Bunny” Livingston to learn how to play the guitar. Marley moved to one of the poorest neighborhoods in Kingston, Trench Town, in the late 1950s. Although he struggled in poverty, he always found inspiration is music around him because Trench Town was considered the Motown of Jamaica and had many successful performers. After devoting much of his time to music and working to improve his singing abilities, he would later form the Wailing Wailers with Livingston and Peter “Tosh” McIntosh. Later, in Marley’s life, he started growing in interest in Rastafarianism. The building where Marley’s famous “No Woman, No Cry,” and “Trench Town Rock” was written, has been converted into the Trench Town Culture Yard Museum. This museum is a primary tourist attraction in the area because it contains Reggae memorabilia of Bob Marley’s first guitar, the Wailer’s old tour bus, and a collection of photographs of Marley (Rhiney and Cruse 7).
    The Trench Town Culture Yard Museum, opened on February 6th, 2000, holds significance and is a place that commemorates Reggae musicians who grew up in the community. The Museum has selective images of Bob Marley and the Trench Town community. This museum is where Bob Marley spent most of his adolescent years and became a tribute where Marley was inspired to write most of his internationally renowned songs (Rhiney and Cruse 7-8). Most of the murals were custom-made by Marley Foundation to pay homage to the contributions made by Bob Marley and other reggae icons such as Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer to Jamaican music, as well as other important black figures such as Marcus Garvey. The Culture Yard is used to attract visitors both locally and abroad to gain insight of Marley’s life and a better understanding of where Reggae music originated. With most of the murals within the Culture Yard Museum, there is an emphasis on Rastafarianism because of its contribution to Jamaican music and culture (Rhiney and Cruse 7-8).
    In 1993, The Trench town Reading Centre, a non-profit, community based, organization was developed. It is a library, a school, and a community in which it is enriched by reading and learning. The Trench Town Reading Centre emphasizes critical thinking, literacy, and education. (Ellison). It has developed over the years to encourage and provide a place for education and community activities. They also provide many children and adults with current and unobtainable material, in a welcoming and accessible environment. The Centre is great burden for struggling parents because school is costly and books, supplies, uniform and shoes must be purchased with extra school fees added. Jamaica’s economy is suffering, and the educational system is not the best because the resources and the money are not there. Children’s education is often scattered when they are unable to attend when financial resources cannot be found (Ellison). That’s why this Centre was created in order to move forward out of the cycle of violence, poverty and exclusion.
    Trench Town is known as small area in the ghetto enclave of Jamaica’s capital. Trench Town has been abandoned and avoided by both the public and private sectors of the Jamaica. It has been isolated, mistreated and threatened by crime and gang violence. Like many impoverished communities, Trench Town has been filled with fear, violence and other negative attributes of the ghetto life. Trench Town has and is a community struggling to be safe, working together, trying to move forward, away from violence. For the younger generation unfortunately, crime has resorted to be the only route to survival (Ellison). Despite the violence and poverty, it is recognized and respected worldwide because of its birthplace and has the roots of Reggae music home to many accomplished and world-famous individuals.
    Trench Town is a significance place because it has a lot of rich history especially with Reggae music and it is a community that has produced notable artists and great talent. Reggae music has helped Jamaicans and many people all over the world be aware of injustices and has helped people to define themselves. It is a way in which voices can be heard and people are able to express themselves and the conditions that are affecting them and the country. The social impact of reggae music has largely impacted life in Jamaica. It has created an understanding of Jamaican culture and lifestyle. With Trench Town and its rich history, it has become a place for people to celebrate their nationalism and life.

    Works Cited

    Aimers, James. The Cultural Significance of Reggae.
    http://www.units.miamioh.edu/ath175/student/petersle/culture.html
    Ellison, Roslyn. “ Trenchtown Reading Centre.” Trenchtown Reading Centre, 2010,
    http://www.trenchtownreadingcentre.com/.
    Rhiney, Kevon and Cruse, Romain. “Trench Town Rock: Reggae Music, Landscape Inscription,
    and the Making of Place in Kingston, Jamaica,” Urban Studies Research, vol. 2012. pp.1-
    13.

  9. The Acropolis in Athens, Greece

    Greece is known as being the birth place of democracy, home to great thinkers like Aristotle and Socrates and beholder of rich history. Athens is the capital of Greece and home to the acropolis, one of their most famous landmarks. having around 14.7 million visitors per year, the acropolis has people from all over the world fly in to see its beauty and rich history. I too have visited the acropolis and It got me thinking “how did the acropolis come to be” and “what does the acropolis mean to the people of Greece”. Throughout this essay I will be exploring these questions in learning more about the origin of the acropolis and its significant to its people.

    The acropolis in Athens is a citadel that sits atop of a hill overlooking the city of Athens. The acropolis has around 11 notable buildings, the most famous building being the Parthenon. Many people get confused and think the Parthenon is the acropolis. The Athens acropolis is not the only acropolis in the world, as any fortified structure on top of a high hill would be considered an acropolis. For example, people in Greece may consider the castle rock in Edinburgh, Scotland, to be an acropolis, as well as many other similar structures around Greece and the world. The acropolis in Athens is approximately 156 meters or 512 feet high, made up of limestone rock. In times of war the acropolis was a place of refuge and offered sanctuary being high up and away from attackers.

    There are many mythological tales and historical facts that describe how the acropolis came to be. To get a well-rounded understanding of the acropolis I will begin looking into the mythological stories that divulge into the lore of the acropolis followed by historical facts. By looking into mythology, we get an understanding of the place through the eyes of story teller. Similar to what we learned in class while reading “Wisdom Sits in Places” by Keith Basso Greek culture and the places in Greece are heavily influenced by folk lore and mythology. Greek history was passed down through stories of mythological characters that inhabited and impacted the land like the Native American who worshiped the land they lived on and passed down many stories.

    Our first story takes us to how Athens got its name, it is said that the way Athens got its name was from a battle between Poseidon the god of the sea, earthquakes and horses, and Athena the goddess of war, wisdom and courage. A top the acropolis the two brought forth gifts to offer to the people of Greece. Poseidon struck his trident into the ground and a water spring gushed out. This gift was to insure the people of Greece an abundance of water. Athena’s gift was an olive tree, this gift was to insure the people resources like food, oil and firewood. The people of Greece chose Athena to be there patron as they felt the olive tree would be better for them rather than Poseidon’s salty water. Although this is all mythology and there is no actual proof that this has happened, the folk lore and stories passed down through generations are symbolic to the land and the people who reside on it. Before Christianity and Greek orthodoxy claimed Greece, ancient Greece used to be polytheistic, this means the belief or worship in more than one god. Religion plays a major role in the history of Greece including the origin of the acropolis. When Christianity came to Greece in 49 AD mythology did not have as much as an impact on the passing of knowledge as it once did.

    Jumping to historical facts to explain the origin of the acropolis I am pulling information from two resources. There is no specific date of when the acropolis began to develop but we can speculate that it is “as early as 5000 BC. In Mycenaean times – around 1500 BC – it was fortified with Cyclopean walls enclosing a royal palace and temples to the cult of Athena.” (rough guides) Mycenaean times were the final phase in the bronze age and represents the first advanced civilization in Greece. This meaning the Myceneans were the first to start developing some of the structures we see atop of the acropolis today. The acropolis would be where religious festivals would take place, worshiping the gods and presenting them with buildings and structures in their honor. It was not until around 490 B.C. that the Athenians would build the old Parthenon, the structure so famously known today. The Parthenon began construction after the Persian sacking of Athens in 480 B.C, it was not until 490 B.C that the “architect and sculptor Fidias created almost everything you see today in an incredibly short time: the Parthenon itself took only ten years to finish. The monuments survived unaltered for close to a thousand years, until in the reign of Emperor Justinian the temples were converted to Christian worship.” (Rough Guides) the acropolis was under many different controls as years passed on going from Greek to roman designs and then to byzantine churches to roman cathedral, the Parthenon and structures however never lost their initial beauty. It was not until 1687 that the Parthenon was destroyed as a result of the Venetians igniting a Turkish gun powder magazine, causing the roof of the Parthenon to be blown off and a fire that would last for two days and two nights. Archaeologist tried to preserve what was left of the ruins of the acropolis and what is left can be seen today.

    The acropolis held many purposes throughout its times, being a place of refuge when Athens was under attack, home to various temples and offerings to the gods as well as a place to hold official government affairs. It Is at this point I feel we should dive into my second question “what does the acropolis mean to the people of Greece?” for this part of my research I read the purpose of the acropolis, but I also asked friends and family member from Greece what the acropolis meant to them. One of the responses I received was that “the acropolis is a symbol of our history” just like how we have the statue of liberty the acropolis plays a pivotal role in the history of Greece as well as the identity of its people. The acropolis today is also a reminder of where Greece started from, and where Greece has developed from through the years.

    In the present day, the acropolis serves as a tourist attraction. No longer a place to host religious festivals or present offerings to the gods the acropolis welcomes 14.7 million people a year. Just across the street from the acropolis is the acropolis museum that has exhibits and sculptures that beautifully represents Greece’s culture. The acropolis museum also has glass floors and underneath you can see old ruins and structures being dug up by archeologist. The history of the acropolis means a lot to not only Greek people but to people of all kinds of nationalities. The top 5 ethnicities to visit the acropolis museum as represented by the museums highlight report from June 2017 – May 2018 revealed that 309.461 or 29% were Greek, 295,696 or 27% were English, 97,082 or 9 % were French, 62,545 or 6% were Spanish and 53,115 or 5 % were Italian. This is only a 5 out of the eleven groups that were reported.

    The acropolis and the acropolis museum not only symbolize years of Greece’s rich history, with having about 14.7 million people visiting this also aids in helping Greece’s economy. The acropolis and the acropolis museum both charge for entry, to see the acropolis it cost around 20 euros, the price can change if you are a student or of you are 16 years old or younger. At the moment Greece’s economy is supported by tourism, tourism aids the country to keep moving forwards and flourish during the summer months. Having the acropolis and the acropolis museum as a tourist attraction brings in much needed money to the government. Greece is experiencing a suffering economy but can always count on the acropolis bringing in people to see its rich history. It is a chain of events, tourist comes to visit the acropolis and pays money to get in, tourist learns about Greece’s history and can also support the local business during their time in Greece.

    The acropolis is not only a beautiful piece of architecture but the root of Greece’s history. learning about how the acropolis came to be both from a mythological standpoint and a historical standpoint gave me a well-rounded understanding of the rich history behind the acropolis. Learning about what the acropolis means to the people of Greece also opens my eyes to the impact the acropolis has had on its people. the acropolis will continue to stand tall as long as we preserve the history to the best of our abilities. After researching the acropolis, I will be visiting the acropolis in august now with all this knowledge.

    Work Cited
    “A Brief History of the Acropolis.” Rough Guides, Rough Guides,
    http://www.roughguides.com/destinations/europe/greece/athens-and-around/the-acropolis/a-brief-history-ofthe-acropolis/.
    Ακρόπολης, Μουσείο. “Acropolis Museum – A Highlights Report (June 2017 – May
    2018).” Issuu Inc., 19 June2018, issuu.com/theacropolismuseum/docs/_cropolis_report_web_en.
    N., Athanasopoulos. “History of Athens.” Athens Sightseeing Tours with Athens Happy Train,
    2017,www.athenshappytrain.com/athens-sightseeing/history-of-athens.
    Hurwit, Jeffery M. “The Athenian Acropolis.” Google Books, 1999,
    books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0pQ4AAAAIAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=acr
    polis%2Bhistory&ots=s3Ws2MqMlD&sig=v85DETJajg0QBIDuQuzvLkAdvlk#v=onepge&q=acropolis20history&f=false.

  10. E.Warren Zavala
    Saba Riazi
    ENG 162W
    04/16/2019

    Philadelphia: Art and Identity.

    After a late night phone call from a long time friend informing me of his intention to move, I found myself on an early morning flight down to Florida. By eight that evening we were on the road north to the city of brotherly love, Philadelphia. In the process of helping my friend move, I realized that my short few hours in the city was the first time I had ever stepped foot in Philadelphia. Resolving to understand this city better I returned for another visit.

    Philadelphia is one of the older American cities with a fairly progressive origin. Founded in 1681 by William Penn. Philadelphia was the first settlement of the colony of Pennsylvania. William Penn envisioned the new colony a “Holy Experiment.” (Werner) Inspired by the ideas Thomas More’s Utopia and Quaker ideas. Penn wanted the colony that was for equality, shared community resources with a well-planned settlement and rational government. This was a radical departure from the religiously based Massachusetts colony or the purely profit-driven founding of Virginia. The open and inclusive nature of Philadelphia along with its location would allow the city to grow as a center of commerce, art, and politics by the 1700s. The understanding of the importance of Philadelphia as an important historical city is easy to understand. But what I did not know was how much they appreciate and understand the power of art to help communities and create an identity.

    The seat of classical more academic art in Philadelphia can be found perched on a hill called Fairmount. The museum is at one end of Benjamin Franklin Parkway, that goes all the way to city hall. The Museum houses over 240,000 objects ranging from European, The Americas, and Asia. The museum is home to the worlds largest Marcel Duchamp collection and is home of many impressionist paintings from Degas, Van Gough and Monet just to name a few. The city is home to the most impressionist painting outside of Paris. The building itself is of Neoclassical Design. It is composed of a central building flanked by two wings on each side. When entering for the south entrance you aced great steps up to the building. I can only imagine that this was done to mimic the many steps Athenians would take to climb the Acropolis. The building has examples of all three of the classical columns. Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Many bronze griffins adorn the roof. They would later be adopted as the museum’s emblem. The location, design, and color of the museums all embody how the city and nation saw itself. America of the early 1900s was coming to its own as a world power and became infatuated all things Empire. Even the Benjamin Franklyn Parkway seems similar to the Mall that leads to Buckingham Palace. The United States might not have a monarchy but this is closest I have seen to a palace or a grand temple. The main museum is not the only house of art for the city along the Parkway you can find Rodin Museum where the world famous sculpture “The Thinker” can be seen. The Art Deco exterior of the Perelman Building building houses the cities collection of photography, fashion and contemporary art. The entire parkway from the Art Museum to City Hall is a monument to the city of Philadelphia as a city of industry, commerce, politics, and arts all from the point of view elite of the 1900s to the 1920s. But grander and empire were identities short-lived for the city. For after the great depression and loss of industrial jobs to other parts of the nation and world. The city could no longer look to the classical and gilded to inform its identity.

    Philadelphia of in early 1980 was suffering from economic depression. The cities reputation for crime overshadowed the achievements of the past and it was city dealing with many challenges. One of the issues they were facing was rampant graffiti. The city had set up a task force to deal with the issue and after little success. Artist Jane Golden parched the city with a different to solve the issue. She envisioned a program that would use the graffiti artist to create murals. The program would go on and evolve to become the Mural Arts Program. Originally the program would partner professional artist with prosecuted graffiti writes to create the murals and threw community groups provide opportunities for local children to be educated in mural art and take part. The program has been so successful that there is about three thousand six hundred mural now in the city. The murals have become a source of pride for the city. Thousands of people come every year to view them. The murals unlike the lone painter in a gallery are community created pieces. Many of them are meant to give you an identity of what part of the city you are in and what that community stands for. Simple ideas like a mural called “give me shelter” is located on the side of a local animal shelter. More complex themes can be found in murals like “pride and progress” that can be found in the predominantly gay area of the city. It depicts the struggle of gay rights in the city from early protest, to pride marches, to marriage equality. Other murals would show about the process of women through time. Others asked to reflect on your connection to nature. But many ask to look at your fellow person as an equal. For no matter, if they were criminals, or poor, or of a different color, sex, gender, or nationality. “A people’s progress toward equality” is still not finished. The mural art of the city is a great contract from the more concentrated curated museum. The murals are all over the place and if you allow them, they can take you to new places beyond the beaten path. And if you are local it is as much for you. As it for the visitor who is just wanting to see the art.

    Philadelphia is a city that understands that importance of identity and how art can help to define what those identities are. Sometimes only a few get to create and have a say in that process but its batter and more interesting when you get everyone to be involved and create. For that, I’m glad to have visited this city and plan return often. Because being part of art is better than just looking at it.

    Citation:

    “Homepage.” Mural Arts Philadelphia, http://www.muralarts.org/.

    Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/category/art/.

    Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/first-purchasers-of-pennsylvania/

    “History of the Parkway.” History of the Parkway | Parkway Museums District Philadelphia, http://www.parkwaymuseumsdistrictphiladelphia.org/About-the-Parkway/Past/38/.

    “Philadelphia Museum of Art.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 7 Apr. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Museum_of_Art.

    Wee, Joel. “Philadelphia, a City of Firsts.” https://Www.philly.com, The Philadelphia Inquirer, Daily News and Philly.com, 3 July 2015, http://www.philly.com/philly/business/20150703_Philadelphia__a_city_of_firsts.html.

  11. Times Square
    The place which I would like to explore in New York City would be Times Square. Whenever I go to Times Square I am always curious to know more about its history. I never got that chance to dive deeper into its past. Now with this research paper I am able to discover new information which I didn’t have any knowledge about before. Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. Thousands of tourists pass by every day in awe of the bright billboards and many different advertisements/attractions. There is no such thing as silence here. Everything jumps out at once, like the feathers on a peacock, immediately catching your attention. I am interested in further investigating Times Square because I feel this place is what makes New York City unique. Without Times Square, the city wouldn’t be the same. It’s a part of our New York identity whose beauty lives in the eyes of the beholder.

    Times Square is sometimes referred to as “The Crossroads of the World”, “The Center of the Universe” and the “heart of the world”. It is one of the world’s busiest pedestrian areas which also features Broadway Theater District and a major center of the world’s entertainment industry. Times Square is one of the world’s most visited tourist attractions, drawing an estimated 50 million visitors annually. Approximately 330,000 people pass through Times Square daily, many of them tourists, while over 460,000 pedestrians walk through Times Square on its busiest days. While doing research I was surprised to see this number because you don’t feel there are that many people passing you. From my own personal experience when you first step in the area you gaze in awe upon seeing the beautiful skyscrapers not knowing which new building you would see or activities to take part in.

    ​My first question is how did Times Square develop into the fast-pacing place that we know today? Times Square was once known as Long Acre Square after London’s carriage district. Times Square served as the early site for William H. Vanderbilt’s American Horse Exchange. In the late 1880s, Long Acre Square consisted of a large open space surrounded by old and dull apartments. This all began to change within years with the form of electricity. With that came theater advertisements and street lights which transformed public space into a safer, more inviting environment. Likewise, the construction of New York’s first rapid transit system, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT), gave New Yorkers unprecedented mobility in the city. While popular bars, restaurants, and theaters attracted people to the area, it was the development of public transportation that facilitated Times Square’s dramatic growth. “For example, in 1905, the first year of operation, the IRT Times Square station serviced almost five million passengers. By the late 1920s, subway lines, elevated lines, and bus routes all stopped at West 42nd Street” (FROM DAZZLING TO DIRTY AND BACK AGAIN: A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIMES SQUARE). Then it became an irrefutable central of the city, transporting not only city dwellers, but also affluent suburbanites and visitors.

    Soon this all began to change for the worst by the Great Depression had begun. Everything began to collapse and fall apart. There were struggles to survive during this time period. The place turned into a low and cheap profile place where sex workers were lingering throughout the neighborhood along 42nd street. This was a devastating time in the city. The aftermath of World War II did little to improve Times Square’s reputation. Crimes thrived in the underground corridors of the subway and the passages at the Port Authority Bus Terminal despite the abundance of police. By the late 1970s, the Times Square area recorded the most felony and net crime complaints in the city. After a great amount of time, money, and effort Times Square slowly began to transform into the great place which we know of today.
    My second question is how has different cultures influenced the way Times Square is today? What makes each part of Times Square a unique place to interact with? There are many different cultures of people who represent Times Square in many different ways. The culture of New York City is reflected in its size and ethnic diversity. Some have restaurants while some have stores. All makes this place an experience to enjoy for others visiting. Many American cultural movements first emerged in the city. The Harlem Renaissance established the African-American renaissance in the United States. Also large numbers of Italian immigrants and Jews immigrated to New York throughout the twentieth century, significantly influencing the culture and image of New York City. American modern dance developed in New York in the early 20th century. The city was the top venue for jazz in the 1940s, expressionism in the 1950s and home to hip hop. Times Square is an important center for music, film, theater, dance and visual art. Artists have been drawn into the city by opportunity, as the city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts, and New York is a major center of the global art market which grew up along with national and international media centers. Anyone who visits the city will feel and see the cultural diversity affecting them. There are many fascinating adventures to do while at Times Square that represent our culture. For example there is Ripley’s Believe It or Not!, Madame Tussauds New York, Father Duffy Square, New Year’s Eve celebrations and many more.

    Times Square has definitely changed from the past to now. “New York City is a place where people visit their old neighborhood and complain that it has improved. Laments of this type over today’s “sterile” Times Square ring false for anyone who actually experienced the old, endlessly fermenting one (“New York City is a place where people visit their old neighborhood and complain that it has improved”). It is home to many tourists who came to seek job opportunities and seek financial support. It gave families hope that they will be able to survive through difficult times. Living in New York has taught me to embrace many cultures. Many people immigrated to the city to one day achieve the American Dream which is the ideal by which equality of opportunity is available to any American, allowing the highest aspirations and goals to be achieved. There is a negative outcome that plays a role in all of this. Whenever I visit with my family and family I feel congested and crowded by so many people that it makes me want to leave the city right away. Especially on the weekends everyone is basically on top of each other without any room to walk. My favorite part of Times Square is New Year’s Eve when the ball drops to celebrate the upcoming year. About roughly one million tourists come to crowd Times Square which is the center of attention of this day. Going to this grand event at least one time in your life will come with many great memories to cherish for the rest of your life.

    ​Times Square is easily accessible by multiple subways and buses. It is the most iconic place in New York City. It can all be pretty overwhelming for a first-time visitor, and many locals avoid the West 40s around Broadway and 7th Avenue to bypass the large amounts of people packed that are taking photos. Times Square is literally the city that never sleeps. It’s a fast pacing city that many people like and many don’t. Once you stand in the center of Times Square, you can see hundreds of rushing people walking on the street. There are also amounts of people who are lining up to buy the Broadway show tickets. There are many different Broadway shows to watch at night and at day. This city caught my attention with the lights at night and how beautiful it looks. I would be in shock if one day its LED lights don’t exists. In short it is always crowded and noisy. For me, it’s really hard to imagine what brave courage you need to drive a car to Time Square because inconceivable amounts of people always walk in the street without watching the traffic light. I believe many people come to Times Square for the ambiance and the billboards spectacle, but there are also many restaurants and shops which are more than a hundred. Times Square is a place of history, diversity, culture and attractions.

    Works Cited
    “FROM DAZZLING TO DIRTY AND BACK AGAIN: A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIMES
    SQUARE” https://www.timessquarenyc.org/history-of-times-square. March 7, 19.

    “New York City is a place where people visit their old neighborhood and complain that it has
    improved.” National Review, 7 Mar. 2011, p. 12. Popular Magazines,
    http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A249959149/PPPM?u=cuny_queens&sid=PPPM&xid=83d00463. Accessed 15 Apr. 2019.

  12. The History Behind the Art Museum

    Built nearly 150 years ago, the Metropolitan Museum of Art which holds artworks from different parts of the world is one of the biggest art museum. Located on the east side of Manhattan that is up to four blocks long. A tourist attraction to many that come to visit the museum has a visitation rate of over 7 million people a year. A topic to go to if you are in the art or are studying art history of just simply like it the Metropolitan is the museum to go to. Some of these artworks or objects are close to 5,000 years old. Just like the artwork the museum holds The Metropolitan has an interesting history of how it was established. The Met which had temporary homes before the current location we now of today on Fifth Avenue had reasons for the relocation of the museum in its first years of establishment. The location on Fifth Avenue also had a rough start to it and wasn’t well received from the public though this had nothing to do with environmental causes.
    The idea of creating the Metropolitan originally can be dated back to Paris, France in 1866 in which a group of Americans agreed to make an institution that could bring art to the people of The United States. The official creation of the museum was on April 13,1870 when the New York Legislature established it. The institute was to help the general public learn about art. However it did not have a building or a collection to present. A trustee was made consisting od several businessmen who would help manage the museum The building in which the Metropolitan currently resides in at Central Park was in the beginning stages of being built and it would take a few years for it to complete it. Due to this the Museum trustees that were at the time had to find a suitable building to store and display the 174 european painting it had bought in 1871 from of the its founding trustees William T, Blodgett and the Roman sarcophagus it had adquire as a gift in the same year. The building that was chosen was the Dodworth Building on 681 Fifth Avenue in which a lease was signed on December 1, 1871. The museum officially opened its door in February 20, 1872 displaying its painting and sarcophagus. The opening was a success as it was recorded by the museum president at that time that the visitors that came were highly pleased. In only a span of three months it was reported by the caretaker of the building that over 6,000 people had attended. The collection stayed in the Dodworth Building until 1873 in which the doors were closed to the public.
    Due to its growing collection and the Cypriot antiquities of 6,000 objects the museum was about to purchase, the Dodworth building was no longer suitable to hold the collections and a new home was to be needed. The museum trustees that was set up manage the museum had found a private New York building. The previous owner had the building made to hold her private art collection. This was a perfect building for the growing museums collection to move to. The building on 128 West Fourteenth St was five time more spacious to that of its previous location. In the spring of 1873 a leased was signed for 5 years with a rent of $8.000 per year. The museum opened its door once again on October 1, 1873. The Douglas Mansion or the Cruger House as it was once called was able to displayed the growing collection the museum had acquired.
    The Douglas Manson held the first loan exhibition of The Met which were 112 entries from 32 different lenders. It consisted of painting from many different artist that were famous. However the conditions of the mansion were not great. It lacked sufficient heating making the mansion too cold. Though the museum was now bigger and had more artworks for the public the lack of heat led to a decline of visitation.It was said that those who visited would tell who they knew that the museum lacked heat to keep them warm. A reception was given on February 14, 1879 and the door to the Douglas Mansion closed. The Metropolitan was officially held at the Douglas Mansion for 6 years. The museums collection were relocated to the current location on Fifth Avenue though the building wasn’t finished.
    The new location of The Met was very different in 1879 than it is now. The area around what we call Central Park was still very much rural with uneven, unpaved ground and abandoned farmlands. The area that was more prominent was south on Fifth Ave. However the location that the museum was built on was not the one the museum trustees wanted. The location was originally decided by the commissioners of “The Central Park” who had full power on how the park was going to be built and managed. The creators of the parks plan did not want any large building in their designs for the park. Due to the pressures to make public structures the creators decided to make a section for the museum. The location was to be by a pre existing street which was the on Fifth Avenue. In 1871 the New York State legislature authorized $ 500 thousand dollars as funds to create the building for The Met.
    The construction of the building was given to the commissioners of the park . They were authorized to pick whichever architect they saw fit to complete the project .Their names where Calvert Vaux and Jacob Wrey Mould. Both were also on the plan design of Central Park. Vaux and Mould had the same idea of using Gothic style to be part of the architectural design of the museum. The building was officially opened on March 30, 1880. However due to the building not being completely done the reviews of the museum were mixed. While the interior of the building was completely done to showcase the collections the exterior of the building wasn’t complete. The annual report of that year stated that the building was only part of a larger scale.Many people including the museum trustees were not satisfied and disappointed by the exterior of the building mainly because of it Gothic style in which to them was outdated. Some of the original building built in the late 1800s is still part of the large museum what we know today and can be seen in the European Sculpture Court.
    With the disappointment of the building design the museum trustees looked for a new architect to complete the remaining if the building. The museum trustees were able to pick the architect they wanted unlike before. The north wing was designed by Theodore Weston and Arthur Lyman Tuckerman and completed in 1894. The next section of the museum that the committee wanted to focus was to create the area that face Fifth Avenue in a bold way, for it to make a statement that was made for its institute. The task was given to Richard Morris Hunt who drew up the sketch of the east wind and the facade with its fours large classical columns. However Hunt died before the it was started and the task was then given to his son Richard Howland Hunt. Though he was completely experience like his father with the help of another architect Hunt finished the drawing and submitted them to the museum trustees for approval. One the east wing was built its main area being the Great Hall and the facade that was inspired by Beaux-Art. The building was received well by the critics and the public for its gorgeous classical style of the facade .Though it is said that the facade wasn’t ever finished. As the years progressed other extensions were added onto the existing building making larger andthe collection of the museum grow larger the one we know today.
    This museum which hold over 5,000 years of art has 150 years of history behind it has come a long way from its time when it had no collection at all or building. A must see if you like art or if your visiting New York City The Metropolitan has a variety of history. From when in was first established in 1870 by the state, to its first piece into its collection being the Roman sarchaogahus which was gifted and its purchase of european painting. Its two temporary homes that were needed due to its growing collection and the lack of completion of the site at Central park. The role that political power that played in the decision behind that location is an interesting factor to its history. To its disappointment of the new building from both the public and its museum trustees. The Metropolitan Museum of Art has a complex but chronological history that can be followed and understood.

    Work Cite Page
    Heckscher, Morrison H. “The Metropolitan Museum of Art: An Architectural History.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 53, no. 1, 1995, pp. 1–80. JSTOR

    Gelfard, Aleksandr. “Today in The Met: March 1”The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2013. https://www.metmuseum.org/blogs/now-at-the-met/features/2013/today-in-met-history-march-1

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2019.” History of The Museum”. https://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-met/history

  13. Daniela Quiroz Catatumbo Lightning.

    It is well known that the center of a storm is called “the eye” and the idea identifies it as the calmest part of the storm being in the center. Where the strongest winds and the most intense weather occurs, the middle of it all is actually just the opposite. Interestingly enough, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela and the Catatumbo lightning storms maintains a similar concept. If you were to reverse the idea around, you’ll find that “the eye” is the storm and its surroundings are practically unaffected by its severeness. Strong weather and powerful storms combined and highlighted with flashing lights offers the look and impression of a show for the people of Venezuela and even the whole world to admirer and appreciate as one of the most remarkable phenomena the earth has to offer. This is where my attention was first caught.
    My interest in this wonderful place only grew from there. My family’s home country is Venezuela and growing up I could never not hear talk of it. For years Venezuelans were very proud of their land and were far from shy about expressing their love for the country. My mother grew up in a small village right next to the nation’s capital, Caracas. As your typical rebellious teenager, she often took trips to visit the wonders Venezuela holds. She has seen Pico Bolívar, Angel Falls, and of course made her way to the Catatumbo River. She had sisters in Maracaibo and in one of the trips she took there, turned out to be her best because it is where she met my father. Hearing this beautiful story, indefinitely motivated and enhanced my desire to further investigate and deeply research this place.
    A perfectly acceptable question and even the most obvious one is what and how are the scientific explanations as to why there is continuous lightning that strikes in piece of land. I discovered that this was a reoccurring request that popped left and right in the studying of this place, in any event, I needed to know more. In my studies I found a numerous amount of scientific theories attempting to explain and validate the seriousness of the storms. Some meteorologist have considered that the attraction of multiple lightning strikes could be due to uranium deposits, or a dense metal that can be used as source of concentrated energy, located in the bedrock. This was where I really had to dig deep into understand how lightning storms work and why and how they generate. I can easily understand that an electrical formation of a great deal of energy, air and rainwater that grow and collide together create sparks between two charged cloud. However, what makes Lake Maracaibo and the Catatumbo Storms so special seems to go into extensive research that can not so simply be clarified as your average storm. An article from Research Gate that attempts to go into the study of intracloud lightning states, “Several local factors help trigger the formation of the thunderstorms in the zone, namely the topography configuration, moisture availability, wind circulation and orographic convection.”. I also found that the likeliness of electrical currency increase because temperatures seem to be higher among places that fall on the equator. The considerably high strikes in the Catatumbo
    River could also possible be due to the pyroelectric gas accumulation that increases the path of the electric displacement (Falcon and Quintero, 3). Polyelectric materials seem to be higher when temperatures are heated or cooled, generating greater voltages. Another explained theory of the increasing amount of conductivity in Lake Maracaibo could be in relation to rich oilfields found in the ground beneath Venezuela. Meteorologist also considered other contributing factors such as deforestation, the aftermath of an El Niño weather event, and of course air humidity. In addition, the BBC claims that a magnitude of lightning hot spots are connected to a unbalanced combination of curved coastlines and mountain range slopes. Taking all the theories and suggestions to account does help understand the whys and wherefores for such a remarkable occurrence, but many meteorological miracles have yet to be fully explained. Luckily scientific research continuous to advance.
    To go further into my research of the Catatumbo River, I found that I first had to begin on a macro level in order to invest more onto the micro. As I started, I considered the country of Venezuela, identifying and defining who the people are and how they treat their land. Then I thought of the nation’s history, and how it molded and shaped the country it later presented to be. Coincidentally enough, I soon found myself narrowing in to the heart of the topic that challenged the questions I posed. I had stumbled upon many theories that brought up some valid points to what I pondered most. Primarily, I immediately saw the importance of the relations between the natives and the nature of Venezuela. Here I express nature as the physical entities of soil, water and air. I questioned how the people of Maracaibo and even the rest of Venezuela react to the phenomena of the Everlasting Storm. Moreover, my question deepened into what kinds of life depend on the extreme weathers of the storms on Lake Maracaibo, both natural and people. Through these inquiries I researched and discovered some philosophies that supported this thought. As mentioned before, it was evident that history played a huge part of creating the standing country of Venezuela and suggestion were shown of how it influenced much of the country’s culture and ideologies. It was proposed that a Spanish poet by the name of Lope De Vega was inspired by the story of British seafarer Sir Francis Drake and his efforts to conquest the city of Maracaibo but due to the excessive light flashes reflected of the lake, Drake and his group were exposed along with their attack plan. This poem was from 1957 and was called “The Dragontea”. This information then lead me to more ways of how the storms saved Venezuela like during the Venezuelan War of Independence in the early 1800s. At this time in history, the many Latin American countries fought for their independence from the Spanish Empire. The grand leader throughout this war, Simon Bolivar, brought Venezuela as well as Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia to its separation and liberation from the Spanish. It was said that in one of the many battles of the war, the Spanish ship were revealed due to the lightning from the storms which brought Simon Bolivar and his military to victory. Just as much as it was used to expose unwarranted attacks, it was also used to help navigate ships through sails. Understanding the history plays a significant and unchangeable role to how Venezuelans carry themselves and shows how much they really appreciate their land in present time. Having a world nation phenomenon on its dirt can undeniably have great importance for Venezuelan pride because it touches back at the roots and foundation of what made the country.

    In summary, many features underwrite the significance of Catatumbo to Venezuela as well as the world. Additionally, I wish to emphasize that the Catatumbo Storms unquestionably heightened my fascination for unique climate and especially so, extraordinary wonders. Even on the darkest of nights, the illumination of constant lightning can catch attention and prompt scientific research. Researchers even said that the district helps regenerate the ozone layer. Being on record for the “highest concentration of lightning” has put Venezuela in the Guinness Book of World Record and attracted a fantastic amount of attention to the country, where now is greatly desired and enforced. I saw this topic as an opportunity to look into the current economic and political system that Venezuela is facing. The people are under an escalating crisis that prompts Venezuelans to fee away from their homeland. This strongly diverts positive attention and blinds outsiders from the beauty of the land. Visitors and past inhabitants are strongly discouraged to entering the country for the country is on the brink of a civil war and is creating very dangerous conditions for living. However, I do feel this drives my interest and concentration to another level. All things considered, the phenomenal Everlasting Storm should remain a standing symbol for the solidity and prosperity for Venezuela even in its toughest times as it did in its past.

  14. Catatumbo Lightning.

    It is well known that the center of a storm is called “the eye” and the idea identifies it as the calmest part of the storm being in the center. Where the strongest winds and the most intense weather occurs, the middle of it all is actually just the opposite. Interestingly enough, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela and the Catatumbo lightning storms maintains a similar concept. If you were to reverse the idea around, you’ll find that “the eye” is the storm and its surroundings are practically unaffected by its severeness. Strong weather and powerful storms combined and highlighted with flashing lights offers the look and impression of a show for the people of Venezuela and even the whole world to admirer and appreciate as one of the most remarkable phenomena the earth has to offer. This is where my attention was first caught.
    My interest in this wonderful place only grew from there. My family’s home country is Venezuela and growing up I could never not hear talk of it. For years Venezuelans were very proud of their land and were far from shy about expressing their love for the country. My mother grew up in a small village right next to the nation’s capital, Caracas. As your typical rebellious teenager, she often took trips to visit the wonders Venezuela holds. She has seen Pico Bolívar, Angel Falls, and of course made her way to the Catatumbo River. She had sisters in Maracaibo and in one of the trips she took there, turned out to be her best because it is where she met my father. Hearing this beautiful story, indefinitely motivated and enhanced my desire to further investigate and deeply research this place.
    A perfectly acceptable question and even the most obvious one is what and how are the scientific explanations as to why there is continuous lightning that strikes in piece of land. I discovered that this was a reoccurring request that popped left and right in the studying of this place, in any event, I needed to know more. In my studies I found a numerous amount of scientific theories attempting to explain and validate the seriousness of the storms. Some meteorologist have considered that the attraction of multiple lightning strikes could be due to uranium deposits, or a dense metal that can be used as source of concentrated energy, located in the bedrock. This was where I really had to dig deep into understand how lightning storms work and why and how they generate. I can easily understand that an electrical formation of a great deal of energy, air and rainwater that grow and collide together create sparks between two charged cloud. However, what makes Lake Maracaibo and the Catatumbo Storms so special seems to go into extensive research that can not so simply be clarified as your average storm. An article from Research Gate that attempts to go into the study of intracloud lightning states, “Several local factors help trigger the formation of the thunderstorms in the zone, namely the topography configuration, moisture availability, wind circulation and orographic convection.”. I also found that the likeliness of electrical currency increase because temperatures seem to be higher among places that fall on the equator. The considerably high strikes in the Catatumbo
    River could also possible be due to the pyroelectric gas accumulation that increases the path of the electric displacement (Falcon and Quintero, 3). Polyelectric materials seem to be higher when temperatures are heated or cooled, generating greater voltages. Another explained theory of the increasing amount of conductivity in Lake Maracaibo could be in relation to rich oilfields found in the ground beneath Venezuela. Meteorologist also considered other contributing factors such as deforestation, the aftermath of an El Niño weather event, and of course air humidity. In addition, the BBC claims that a magnitude of lightning hot spots are connected to a unbalanced combination of curved coastlines and mountain range slopes. Taking all the theories and suggestions to account does help understand the whys and wherefores for such a remarkable occurrence, but many meteorological miracles have yet to be fully explained. Luckily scientific research continuous to advance.
    To go further into my research of the Catatumbo River, I found that I first had to begin on a macro level in order to invest more onto the micro. As I started, I considered the country of Venezuela, identifying and defining who the people are and how they treat their land. Then I thought of the nation’s history, and how it molded and shaped the country it later presented to be. Coincidentally enough, I soon found myself narrowing in to the heart of the topic that challenged the questions I posed. I had stumbled upon many theories that brought up some valid points to what I pondered most. Primarily, I immediately saw the importance of the relations between the natives and the nature of Venezuela. Here I express nature as the physical entities of soil, water and air. I questioned how the people of Maracaibo and even the rest of Venezuela react to the phenomena of the Everlasting Storm. Moreover, my question deepened into what kinds of life depend on the extreme weathers of the storms on Lake Maracaibo, both natural and people. Through these inquiries I researched and discovered some philosophies that supported this thought. As mentioned before, it was evident that history played a huge part of creating the standing country of Venezuela and suggestion were shown of how it influenced much of the country’s culture and ideologies. It was proposed that a Spanish poet by the name of Lope De Vega was inspired by the story of British seafarer Sir Francis Drake and his efforts to conquest the city of Maracaibo but due to the excessive light flashes reflected of the lake, Drake and his group were exposed along with their attack plan. This poem was from 1957 and was called “The Dragontea”. This information then lead me to more ways of how the storms saved Venezuela like during the Venezuelan War of Independence in the early 1800s. At this time in history, the many Latin American countries fought for their independence from the Spanish Empire. The grand leader throughout this war, Simon Bolivar, brought Venezuela as well as Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia to its separation and liberation from the Spanish. It was said that in one of the many battles of the war, the Spanish ship were revealed due to the lightning from the storms which brought Simon Bolivar and his military to victory. Just as much as it was used to expose unwarranted attacks, it was also used to help navigate ships through sails. Understanding the history plays a significant and unchangeable role to how Venezuelans carry themselves and shows how much they really appreciate their land in present time. Having a world nation phenomenon on its dirt can undeniably have great importance for Venezuelan pride because it touches back at the roots and foundation of what made the country.

    In summary, many features underwrite the significance of Catatumbo to Venezuela as well as the world. Additionally, I wish to emphasize that the Catatumbo Storms unquestionably heightened my fascination for unique climate and especially so, extraordinary wonders. Even on the darkest of nights, the illumination of constant lightning can catch attention and prompt scientific research. Researchers even said that the district helps regenerate the ozone layer. Being on record for the “highest concentration of lightning” has put Venezuela in the Guinness Book of World Record and attracted a fantastic amount of attention to the country, where now is greatly desired and enforced. I saw this topic as an opportunity to look into the current economic and political system that Venezuela is facing. The people are under an escalating crisis that prompts Venezuelans to fee away from their homeland. This strongly diverts positive attention and blinds outsiders from the beauty of the land. Visitors and past inhabitants are strongly discouraged to entering the country for the country is on the brink of a civil war and is creating very dangerous conditions for living. However, I do feel this drives my interest and concentration to another level. All things considered, the phenomenal Everlasting Storm should remain a standing symbol for the solidity and prosperity for Venezuela even in its toughest times as it did in its past.

  15. Santa Ana Volcano
    Volcanos are a mixed blessing between beautiful but destructive. Volcanos are described to be a rupture in the earth’s crust of a planetary mass object, such as earth that allows hot lava volcanic ash and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Volcanoes are located usually under water. Santa Ana volcano is an interesting place because it carries a lot of history in the country of El Salvador and reflects towards the people there. Santa Ana volcano is also known as Llamatepec. It’s a stratovolcano and its 45 km west of San Salvador. San Salvador is the capital city of El Salvador. The volcano is about 2,381 m high. This volcano is a Stratovolcanoes, there tall mountainous volcanos made up of lava. Small to moderate explosive eruptions have been historically marked since the 16th century. The last eruption was in the year 2005. East of Santa Ana volcano starting off from an elevation of approximately 1500m is the formation of Coatepeque collapse caldera. Not only are you visualizing just one volcano but you’re getting another view of what was formed by an avalanche.
    In the article “Hiking up the Santa Ana Volcano” describes the authors own experience. If you’re an explorer and you like to go on adventures, then Santa Ana volcano is the answer. The author who wrote this article “Hiking the Santa Ana Volcano in El Salvador” the author discusses his experience in El Salvador and talks about hiking up the Santa Ana volcano. People have access to hike up this monstrous volcano to get an amazing view at almost 2,400 m. In the city you can travel by bus to the Santa Ana volcano and about 2 policemen escort you to the top for safety reasons. In the article “The Santa Ana volcano (Vulcan Llamatepec), at almost 2,400m (7,850ft) in height, offers some beautiful panoramic views of neighboring towns and scenic landscapes from the top, But the highlight is undoubtedly the stunning turquoise lake that sits in the centre of the crater”(2018). The anticipation is rising as you’re getting higher and higher towards the top of the mountains must feel exhilarating. Towards the center you will see the great depth of the lake as you dive into the cool calming water. According to the author the hike isn’t difficult, but you will get an exercise out of the whole experience. It takes about 4 hours to get to the top of the volcano. By the time you get to the top of the volcano, you’ll be tired and sweaty, but the trip is worth seeing. The first sight he saw when he reached the top was the steam oozing from the crater, which is located at the top of the volcano. He also mentions the eerie mist of the steam across the Crater Lake. I thought his article was informative because he gives information on how to get to the volcano, his own experience and what is expected through the tour.
    The country of El Salvador carries a lot of history that many people outside of the country aren’t informed about. A little bit about the country is known for its golden age of coffee, many business men owned coffee plants and sold for its profit. Santa Ana is also known historically through their architecture which makes the building and monuments look attractive which catches people’s attention to their special features. The Cathedral of Santa Ana has a gothic and byzantine style and was built around the year 1995. Unfortunately, in the year 1979-1992 was the beginning of the start of a civil war in El Salvador. The start of the civil war made an impact of the people of El Salvador because it forced people to emigrate, violence increased, and the formation of gangs began. The war made an impact worldwide it was compared to the cold war ideology during this time. About 100, 00 people lost their lives throughout the civil war and over all, the country had suffered a widespread of poverty. Haeseleer (2008) “From 1979 until 1992, the United States government intervened in the Salvadoran Civil War to defeat ‘communist revolution,’ establish a moderate, centrist government, and prevent its overthrow”. The reason for the war lasting 13 years is because the government of El Salvador wanted to form a democracy for the people and wanted to seek help from America to build better programs to help their socio-economic status. Despite this tragedy that’s occurred in the country of El Salvador, people remained positive and the development of humanitarian intervention programs which relieved civil conflict (Delugan, 2005). Many programs were formed to resolve globalization problems and to rebuild culture and identity in the country. “In an effort to introduce stability and order in El Salvador, UNESCO attempted to instruct both state and society not only in peace but also in the norms of democratic culture” (Delugan,2005). Through years of civil war in El Salvador, the country needed to find peace in order to move on from this tragedy and start over peacefully through its organizations.
    What’s it like to travel the Santa Ana volcano came a curiosity and interest in future research in the country of El Salvador. According to the article the author thought it was the main attraction in the country of El Salvador. The author considered this experience as an exercise or expedition towards the second largest city known as Santa Ana. In order to get to the volcano, it started at the Cerro Verde national park and it is a two hour bus ride. If you’re considering hiking the volcano you would have to start early in the day because in order to see the volcano requires a full day. A hotel is recommended since it takes a full day for the activity, the hotel is called Hotel Casa Verde, and it has a beach architecture lifestyle. The hotel is famous for its beach style rooms. When hiking up the volcano temperature is an important factor but can be dangerous because if it starts to rain you won’t be able to stay there long and you won’t be able to view the volcano and get the full experience. It’s recommended to hike the volcano when it’s dry season because you can get the full view of the landscape and it’s worth the trip.
    One question that came to my curiosity in furthering my research is, is it dangerous to live near the volcano? and does it affect the people in El Salvador? According to my research approximately 10,000 people live near the volcano. There are two major cities within 20 km away from the volcano and it could affect about 100 million people if the volcano were to explode. The people aren’t fully aware of how hazardous it can be for people that live near the volcano. People in El Salvador have experienced tremendous impacts such civil war, minor earthquakes, landslides, and hurricanes (Granyia, 2018). What caught my attention was that before the eruption, coffee pickers would be able to pick coffee berries near the slopes of the volcanic region which is known as Finca Malacara. In 2005, an eruption had occurred and ash fuming in the air at about 10 km altitude. Ash was beginning to fall, and ballistic blocks were striking up to 1m diameter which made an impact to the craters of the volcano and later a debris flow made it down to the ravine in the south east of the volcano. This was the beginning of a dangerous evacuation and had to evacuate several thousand residents. Living near this volcano can be a risk factor towards the people in El Salvador, they must be aware and take note of what’s occurring around the volcano if sudden changes, such as fuming of ash. Regardless, of its beautiful view of the landscapes from the Santa Ana volcano compared to living near the volcano is viewed differently between both sides. The residents who live near must be aware of any sudden climate changes that can trigger the volcano to suddenly abrupt and if this does occur, they must stop everything they’re doing and evacuate immediately. Since the eruption, “The volcanic complex is the largest protected area in the UNESCO designated Apaneca-Lamatepec Biosphere Reserve. It boasts a variety of ecosystems and habitats” (Granyia, 2018). Tourists can travel safely and spend time at the site of the volcano. For residents living near the volcano can feel safe in their home environment.
    Santa Ana volcano is one of the most extraordinary places to see in the city of El Salvador, many tourists find their experience interesting and find the views of the landscapes from the volcano to be beautiful. Also, it was informative to explore what the country of El Salvador has been through and it still stands to be a strong country through encountering the civil war which made an impact towards the people from Salvador. The eruption of the volcano in 2005 brought about safety programs to protect residents who live near the volcano and it also molds tourists to feel safe through traveling the volcano and getting to experience the sight of the volcano.

    Reference
    Bailey, (2018 May 24), Santa Ana Volcano Hike. https://destinationlesstravel.com/2017/10/02/santa-ana-volcano-hike/
    D’Haeseleer, B. (2015). American Civic Action: The National Campaign Plan and the Failure to Win ‘Hearts and Minds’ in El Salvador. Diplomacy & Statecraft, 26(3), 494–513. https://doi-org.queens.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1080/09592296.2015.1067527
    DeLugan, R. (2005). Peace, Culture, and Governance in Post–Civil War El Salvador (1992–2000). Journal of Human Rights, 4(2), 233–249. https://doi-org.queens.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1080/14754830590952161
    Granyia, (2018 July 3) VOLCÁN de SANTA ANA or Lamatepec https://volcanohotspot.wordpress.com/2018/07/03/volcan-de-santa-ana-%F0%9F%87%B8%F0%9F%87%BB-or-lamatepec-not-ilamatepec/
    Zoren, Raphael Alexander, et al. “Hiking the Santa Ana Volcano.” Don’t Forget To Move, 14 Mar. 2019, http://www.dontforgettomove.com/hiking-the-santa-ana-volcano-el-salvador/.

  16. Brandon Beaman
    English 162W
    Prof. Riazi
    4/16/19

    RKO Keith’s Theater, Flushing, NY: Research Draft #1

    Through the yearn to explore the RKO Theater in Flushing, New York, I found that the history was even more deeply intertwined with the neighborhood that I reside in than I had previously found to be the case. This history helped me to gain a deeper understanding of why Flushingites throughout the neighborhood feel so strongly about preserving and reconstructing the once great architecturally stunning theater which they had been graced to ponder upon its beautiful interior and exterior while it was still an active theater. The thirst for knowledge and first-person account of what this great theater once was led me to investigate further for myself. My interest was piqued to the point of no return, and I found myself drawn to even the most miniscule details of this theater and it’s inevitable fall from grace.

    Throughout the United States, various theaters were opened to entertain the masses, who had more free-time than in the past. These theaters began with the utilization of vaudeville acts and other live performances which captured the minds of those who had the monetary funds to buy tickets. In the case of the Keith-Albee Vaudeville, the theater first opened with a singular movie screen, but majority of the entertainment which was present there was vaudeville acts. A vaudeville act was a form of live entertainment which was popular from the 1880’s up until the 1930’s which held an emphasis on “polite” entertainment. This form of entertainment was the brainchild of 2 men, Benjamin Franklin Keith and Edward F. Albee, for which the Keith-Albee Vaudeville was named after. They developed the vaudevilles in a family friendly manner, barring performers from using vulgar language and utilizing sexually revealing costumes. At this same time, spectators were banned from jeering at the performers, as to disrupt the performance or express discontent. (Kibler) These vaudevilles would consist of musical performances, comedic skits, dramatic scenes, all while adhering to the moral standards set forth by Benjamin Franklin Keith. These vaudevilles tended to have moral basis, as to provide a lesson while simultaneously entertaining those who paid to watch, successfully balancing entertainment with morality. What is ultimately known of the specific vaudevilles which came to the Keith-Albee Vaudeville has been lost to history because the only descriptions of vaudevilles are those which were written by managers’ of the theater and print forms of media which have not been preserved.

    While the Keith-Albee Vaudeville, later named the RKO Keith’s Theater, held vaudeville performances, the vaudeville industry was quickly dying out by the time the theater was opened. On March 26th, 1914, Benjamin Franklin Keith died which led Edward F. Albee to gain control of the Keith/Albee circuit. Due to the vaudeville industry slowing dying out by the mid-1920s, Albee decided to merge with a prominent vaudeville company creating the Keith-Albee-Orpheum Circuit, but ultimately sold many of his shares in 1928 to Joseph P. Kennedy. This led to the Keith-Albee-Orpheum to merge with Mr. Kennedy’s company known as Radio Corporation of America, establishing the Radio-Keith-Orpheum, which is where the RKO Keith’s Theater received its name. Albee lost his dominion over the company and theaters, which directly led to vaudevilles to slowing be phased out for movies, only acting in coexistence up into the 1930’s. (Kibler) Around this epoch in RKO Keith’s Theater history, motion picture on the silver screen was capturing the attention of people throughout the United States to the point that many vaudeville performers began to film their performances as to progress with the times, ultimately leading to the entirety of the industry to die out. At this point, movies became all the rage in the entertainment industry, which is where RKO thrived leading the theater to switch over to a movies-only policy by the late 1930’s.

    As I researched into the theater deeper, I found it necessary to ask those within my community and family their experiences with the beautifully gold painted décor adorned theater. Through my inquiry amongst my family members, I found that my parents had a vast amount of fond memories visiting the theater in their youth. My grandfather would take my dad and his brothers and sisters each weekend to the theater to watch the movie on the bill. They bonded over the ability to watch the movies together and talk about them afterwards at a local mom and pop ice cream shop, or eatery. While my mother did not go to the movies as much when she was younger, in her teenage years, my father and her would go on dates to the movie theater. My grandmother would cook popcorn for my mother, which she would in turn, sneak in to share with my father. In finding out this information, I felt such a deeper connection to a place that, though I never was able to enjoy with my own eyes, the beauty that was present was enjoyed by my own parents. They told me of the larger than life Grand Foyer, adorned with gold painted plasterwork and so many little intricate works of art which were displayed throughout the theater. I then spoke to my uncle about his experiences at the theater. He told me of the countless number of weekends him and his friends would spend going to the movie theater and attempting to sneak in for a free viewing and getting caught about 95%. The 5% in which they did not get caught was that much sweeter for him and his friends, who now had saved the money for the tickets and could enjoy a night on the town. He told me that one time he went with his parents to see a movie and was walking in the Grand Foyer when he looked to the side to find a man proposing to his girlfriend. As one can tell, the significance of this theater is present through the interesting and memorable times they spent within Flushing’s centerpiece.

    I had always noticed the theater since I was a child, originally viewing it as an eyesore in its dilapidated state. I was unsure of the purpose of it, under the assumption that it was just an abandoned store. As I grew older and more aware of the history of Flushing and the places which make it the history-rich neighborhood it is, I stopped one day and stood across the street looking the building from top to bottom wondering the original purpose it held. I then utilized the internet in search of its use, as to quench my thirst for knowledge. I quickly came across countless news articles relaying information about possible demolition of the theater, which had become a shell of its former beauty. I began to feel extremely upset. Even though I had never stepped foot within its lavishly decorated interior, I began to think about all the memories and historic performances which had been developed there, and demolition would serve as a medium for eradication of these said memories which were held so dear to all who traveled and had memorable moments within, especially those who have departed such as my grandfather, utilizing the entertainment as a means to connect with my father and his siblings.

    What once was a thriving theater is now on the chopping block, lost to the greed and overdevelopment of it’s current owner, Xinyuan real estate. The demolition is officially on track with plans to build a 16-floor glass apartment build with almost 300 apartments for rent while preserving the landmark status Grand Foyer and ticket lobby within the confines of the building. The Landmarks Preservation Commission ultimately approved the proposal for this building to be developed in 2017. A prominent architect named I.M. Pei has been named as the architect in charge of preservation of the parts of the RKO which will be left unscathed and possibly rejuvenated. (Curbed) As of today, they are currently transported many of the important historical decorations offsite to be used in the new building’s lobby, recreating the Grand Foyer as closely as can be. These plans are ongoing, and no start or completion date has been provided for this possible project.(Tieu) Though there are many who oppose this new building and rejuvenation of the 2 landmark sites, many have accepted that it would be impossible for a full restoration of the theater due to crumbling infrastructure, graffiti riddled walls, and the high cost to repair the basement and take out permits to work.

    The site of RKO has been left a dilapidated shell of its former self, left to the discretion of the various graffiti artists which sprawl the walls with their tags, signing upon the interior their marks, and leaving a stain upon a once lavishly decorated theater. With the vast corruption which led this theater to its slaughter, the beacon of light shines through the many holes which riddle the roof into an abyss of darkness upon a once thriving stage. Another magnificent site, lost to the overdevelopment that plagues Flushing as a whole and to the dismay of it’s residents which have fought since the 1980’s to rejuvenate this site to serve the community once again.

    Works Cited:

    1. Kibler, M. A. “The Keith/Albee Collection: The Vaudeville Industry, 1894-1935.” Books at Iowa, no.56, 1992, pp. 7-24. https://doi.org/10.17077/0006-7474.1208

    2. Tieu, Van. “RKO Keith Theater Will Be Demolished to Dismay of Neighbors.” RKO Keith Theater Will Be Demolished to Dismay of Neighbors, NY1, 14 Mar. 2019, http://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/news/2019/03/14/development-plans-at-rko-keith-theater-back-on-track-to-dismay-of-some-neighbors?fbclid=IwAR3x69hKdEdFrDsK198yCJjR7X1iLNPiWdIMxdjf55YvsaGA-rfnG4CNYHw.

    3. Rosenberg, Zoe, and Tanay Warerkar. “Flushing’s Landmarked RKO Keith’s Theater Will Soon Be Engulfed by Glassy Condo.” Curbed NY, Curbed NY, 16 May 2017, ny.curbed.com/2017/5/16/15643646/rko-keiths-theater-landmark-redevelopment-queens.

  17. Ashley Rojas
    English 162w
    Professor Saba Riazi
    March 16, 2019

    The Modernization in the Lower East Side

    New York City has developed and modernized in many ways. Gentrification has been apart of this, to places that once used to be very affordable and diverse. The Lower East Side has gone through gentrification and a complete transformation throughout the last 50 years. It has gone through renovation and improvement of the district to satisfy the middle class. Previous residents who have contributed to the aesthetics of artists, smaller entrepreneurs and the multi-purpose use of abandoned buildings and creating businesses. These aesthetics have attracted newer incoming residents and a higher class.
    The Lower East Side used to be known as “Little Germany” the reason for this is that the German were the first large immigrant settlers to arrive in the mid 19th century. Slowly but surely, the population of Germans began declining as of a result of The General Slocum Disaster in June 15, 1904. It was when a ship was heading to the East River and a fire began. 1,021 of women and children either died from burning alive or from drowning and their clothes prevented them from swimming. The remaining residents were very devastated, they became depressed and moved away and others, committed suicide. Today they have the Slocum Memorial Fountain located at the Tompkins Square Park in East Village. Around the same time, Jewish immigrant culture came flooding in.
    During the 20th century, with Jewish communities flooding into the Lower East Side came talent and an interest in theater. Within the Lower East Side, filming studios were born, eventually, it was brought to Hollywood alongside actors who had a big impact on the theater district. The Lower East Side still consisted of people and family living within the means of poverty. Then there became an emergence of Tenements. Tenements housed many families in small, tight, and poor conditions. These poor conditions included being overcrowded, unsafe, and unhygienic, this made it very easy to catch a disease. Over two-thirds of New York residents were living in the 80,000 cramped tenements, according to Indianajo.com. However as years went by, organized crime from the Italian and Jewish mafia began succeeding. Eventually, in the 1960s the Jewish immigrants began moving out when crime began rising. The Jewish would now be able to afford better places to live due to their success in the theater district and for some, their businesses becoming very successful. In the 1980s a different type of culture of people who were passionate about art and music began coming in. Poverty was still a problem and the government was of little help for housing, even though rent was low. In addition, selling drugs was made very easy and common in this area, buildings were abandoned and lots had cars piled up on each other.
    In the present time, the Lower East Side is one of the most desirable neighborhoods in New York City. It was once the most diverse neighborhoods that suffered through a high rate of poverty and crime but, it is now covered with luxury buildings where the rent is dramatically different from the times of the tenements. There is also a presence of fine dining. What we see today is of great difference from before, people live in luxury, there are large businesses and smaller luxurious business thriving while during the days of the tenements people were living in complete and utter poverty. We can see a huge difference from now and then with the change in people living in the LES and with how they live.
    Perceptions in this area the Lower East Side have changed over the years. It has changed due to different factors. As Lara Belkind states the global factors that caused this gentrification was the difference of ‘content’ industries, market differentiation, and the perceptions of the Internet based on the area or what was authentic or not.
    Store owners and those looking to open up their business in the lower East Side focus on they will attract the attention of customers and residents. For example they focus on the appearance: “Recycled storefronts are just one manifestation of the sealth aesthetics and strategies if camouflage that has helped transform the Lower East Side over the last several decades.” This explains how slowly but surely the business has brought in other crowds without making much difference to the appearance. The aesthetics such as old buildings and abandoned buildings have been preserved but the services that have been modernized have attracted new residents. For example, later on, those esthetics were used for hidden bars, theaters, and restaurants. This also brings in Cultural phenomenon. Many are fascinated with these aesthetics. An aesthetic that the Lower East Side is known for is the “artist-entrepreneur.” They use this as a marketing technique and it attracts those of the “Art industry.“
    The art and music industry has factored into this gentrification of bringing in more people. The Chicago School of Urban Sociology discuss the use of lofts in the 1950s by artists. According to Belkind’s “Stealth Gentrification On The Lower East Side,” the artists used these industrial lofts as galleries, afterward they were being turned into restaurants and shops.” This shows the effect that artists had on the use of lofts and using this as apart of the aesthetic on the lower east side.
    Lara Belkind refers to the years 1995-2002 as the “Hip operations” era. Those known as “hippies”, they were “young bohemian middle-class” who were the part of the working class. The boom of the companies and small entrepreneurs brought in the help of the city government. For example: “ it helped transform the Lower East Side from a principally residential neighborhood into a space of intensive entertainment and cultural consumption” (Belkind, Lara).
    In the present time, the Lower East Side is one of the most desirable neighborhoods in New York City. It was once the most diverse neighborhoods that suffered through a high rate of poverty and crime but, it is now covered with luxury buildings where the rent is dramatically different from the times of the tenements. There is also a presence of fine dining. What we see today is of great difference from before, people live in luxury, there are large businesses and smaller luxurious business thriving while during the days of the tenements people were living in complete and utter poverty. We can see a huge difference from now and then with the change in people living in the LES and with how they live.

    BELKIND, LARA. “Stealth Gentrification: Camouflage and Commerce on the Lower East Side.” Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, vol. 21, no. 1, 2009, pp. 21–36. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41758710.

  18. Juan Franco 4/14/2019
    ENG 162W

    Nature is a scary but beautiful phenomenon that we humans sometimes take for granted and do not take the time to appreciate or even take care of the things we can control. I once read a quote by famous Brazilian lyricist and novelist Paulo Coelho ”I have seen many storms in my life. Most storms have caught me by surprise, so I had to learn very quickly to look further and understand that I am not capable of controlling the weather, to exercise the art of patience and to respect the fury of nature.” (2017). Although this quote talks more of Natural disasters I believe it applies to the whole nature itself because nature reacts to our actions. This quote means so much to me because it tells the exact way I feel about nature, and how people should feel about it. Nature has always been very important to us, it is a necessity in our life and we are not helping it, we are slowly killing it without knowing it. We must value and look out for what we have now especially with all the construction being build around, we are starting to have more buildings than trees.
    The way I appreciate nature is that I spend a lot of time in parks, the greener the better for me. I feel a sense of peacefulness and like the smell of the trees and grass surrounding me, I take it as a type of meditation for my mind and body, as it can relieve the stress from having a bad day or a bad week just by simply sitting on the grass letting the wind bring the smell and sound of nature. There are many city parks here in New York that are worth visiting and spending time in but Central Park is the one that steals the show with its’ stunning appearance and all year long functions and events. This park represents the city of Manhattan so it is very important for us the people the inhabit in this city. According to the park’s official website http://www.centralparknyc.gov ”Moving though these orchestrated views would be the antidote to the congestion and unforgiving pace of work and the crowded conditions in which much of the soaring population lived”(These grand pastoral scenes …). This was the purpose of the park itself, and I believe if does a good job for the people. Everyone that comes to visit they do it to relax and enjoy the views on their days off maybe, or even the tourist that come to visit New York City. Going to Central Park is a must if you are visiting from another state or country.
    This beautiful public park has a big influence on the city of Manhattan. We all know that trees give us oxygen and helps us survive in this world, that is why big parks like this one have been given the name ”The lungs of the City”, this name makes sense when these parks are surrounded by houses, buildings and all the traffic that goes on. The city of New York is all about growing and building new things to attract consumers so imagine how life would be without the natural aspects that the parks provide for us, we would be living in a dead city that just has us working hard with barely air to breath. Also for this particular city, it depends a lot on tourism in a financial way, Central Park is one of the most popular destinations to tour. As stated by an article in the daily mail’s website ”Sites in the Americas take more than half the spots – including the top nine tourist attractions in the world […] In third place is Central Park in New York with 37.5 million visitors a year.” (Carol Drive, 2014). There are many people that also depend on this park for example the people that work giving tours to people around the park on their carriage or their bikes, the people drawing portraits inside the park, the businesses that entertain the visitors and many more.
    There are also other parks that are similar to Central Park with a lot of nature surrounding it and beautiful setting to spend days relaxing. There are Prospect Park and Highland Park that are located in the north of Brooklyn, New York and there is my personal favorite park Flushing Meadows Park in the center of Queens, New York. I have a very strong connection with this park because I have lived many significant moments inside this park. Even though I have always lived in walkable distances from this park I would travel far just to come here, it has got everything I want from a park, Soccer fields and open green spaces for picnics or just to relax and enjoy the weather. I treat this park with respect and try to do my part by keeping it clean and not damaging anything while I see other people doing the opposite, throwing garbage on the floor, mistreating the trees and bushes, smoking anywhere, and vandalizing the park. While I like to connect with the nature in my own way sometimes it is hard to do it when there is people disturbing that do not care for it, it is sad to see people mistreat something that is so important in the world.
    Making a connection with nature is very significant to us and to nature itself, many people think plants and trees are just there for decoration but they feel and react to the way we treat them. A couple of years back I had a friend from school perform an experiment on two plants that he had in his house, everyday when he would come home he would salute and give positive energy to one of the plants and then do the opposite to the other plant by cursing and saying unpleasant things to it, he would do all of this while still taking care of them and watering them. After days he noticed the plant that he was giving the negative energy was starting to show signs of decaying while the other remain the same or even in better condition. This proved to me that plants have life and feel our energy so we must take care them.
    When I read Wisdom Sits in Places by Keith H. Basso, I immediately understood the importance of the connection a person has with nature and how it affects both parties. In this book we learn how important culture, land and nature was to the Western Apache tribe located in Cibecue, Arizona. ”Now they are clearing the fields of unwanted plants, putting them in something to later take them away. “I am looking after you, just as I would my children,” they are saying. “Because of this you will grow strong and tall and give us much to eat. I am praying this will happen.”They were careful to do everything correctly. They didn’t rush or try to hurry their work. They depended on their corn, so they treated it with respect. This would help it to grow. They did everything correctly.” (p. 22) These are the lines that brought back the memory of my friend’s experiment. The elders from the tribe knew taking care of the land was a priority in order to survive and eat, they knew the land responded to the way they treated it so they prayed to it and took care of the land and the corn that would later feed their families. To me this is proof that being one with nature is beneficial to both nature and the person.
    At the end of the day we depend on nature much more than nature depends on us, sure we speed the process of destruction by doing the things that harm nature like smoking, excess of garbage accumulation, burning fossil fuels and many more things but only nature with its’ unpredictable and uncontrollable reactions is the one that decides and acts upon us, If we are meant to be punished for not taking care of nature I am prepared to accept it because we deserve it. We must love and protect the land and air that gives us life, we would be nothing without it and some people just fail to see that or at least they fail to do something about it. Any little positive change we make can make such a huge difference in the world. Nature is life and we must respect it.

    Work Cited

    Coelho, Paulo. ”Nature.” Twitter, 8 Dec. 2017, twitter.com/paulocoelho/status/939143163276558337. Accessed 14 Apr. 2019.

    Conservancy, Central Park. “Park History.” The Official Website of Central Park NYC, http://www.centralparknyc.org/visit/park-history.html.

    Basso, Keith H., 1940-2013. Wisdom Sits in Places : Landscape and Language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque :University of New Mexico Press, 1996. Print.

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